Gilded Age

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The Breakers, una magione della Gilded Age a Newport nel Rhode Island

La Gilded Age nella storia degli Stati Uniti è la fine del XIX secolo, il periodo che va dal 1870 al 1900 circa, partendo dalla presidenza di Ulysses S. Grant per terminare con la presidenza di William McKinley. Il termine per questo periodo entrò in uso nei decenni del 1920 e 1930 e fu derivato dal romanzo The Gilded Age: Un racconto di oggi del 1873 dello scrittore Mark Twain, che satireggia un'epoca di gravi problemi sociali mascherati da una sottile doratura. La parte iniziale della Gilded Age coincide grosso modo con la parte centrale dell'età vittoriana in Gran Bretagna e della Belle Époque in Francia.

La Gilded Age è stata un periodo di rapida crescita economica, in particolare nel nord e nell'ovest. Poiché i salari americani erano molto superiori a quelli europei, soprattutto per i lavoratori qualificati, il periodo vide un afflusso di milioni di immigrati europei. La rapida espansione dell'industrializzazione portò alla crescita dei salari reali del 60% tra il 1860 e il 1890, distribuiti tra la sempre crescente forza lavoro. Il salario medio annuo per lavoratore industriale (tra cui uomini, donne e bambini) passò da 380 dollari nel 1880 a 564 dollari nel 1890, un incremento del 48%. Tuttavia, la Gilded Age fu anche un'epoca di povertà e disuguaglianza, poiché milioni di immigrati - molti provenienti da nazioni europee impoverite - si riversarono negli Stati Uniti, e l'alta concentrazione della ricchezza diventò più visibile e controversa.[1]

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Bibliografia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Archdeacon, Thomas J. Becoming American: An Ethnic History (1984) on immigration and ethnicity
  • Argersinger; Peter H. Structure, Process, and Party: Essays in American Political History. (1992) online version
  • Arnesen, Eric, ed. Encyclopedia of U.S. Labor and Working-Class History (3 vol. 2006), essays by scholars
  • Jack Beatty, Age of Betrayal: The Triumph of Money in America, 1865-1900, Vintage, 2008, ISBN 1-4000-3242-3.
  • Buenker, John D. and Joseph Buenker, eds. Encyclopedia of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era. (2005). 1256 pp. in three volumes. ISBN 0-7656-8051-3; 900 essays by 200 scholars
  • Calhoun, Charles W. (a cura di), The Gilded Age: Perspectives on the Origins of Modern America, 2nd, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007, ISBN 978-0-7425-5037-7.
  • Cherny, Robert W., American Politics in the Gilded Age, 1868–1900, Wheeling, Illinois, Harlan Davidson, 1997.
  • De Santis, Vincent P. "The Political Life of the Gilded Age: A Review of the Recent Literature." The History Teacher' 9.1 (1975): 73-106. in JSTOR
  • Edwards, Rebecca, New Spirits: Americans in the Gilded Age, 1865–1905, Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 978-0-19-514729-2.
  • Faulkner, Harold U.; Politics, Reform, and Expansion, 1890–1900 (1959), scholarly survey, strong on economic and political history online edition
  • Fink, Leon. The Long Gilded Age: American Capitalism and the Lessons of a New World Order (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015) excerpt
  • Folsom, Burton W., and Forrest McDonald, The Myth of the Robber Barons: A New Look at the Rise of Big Business in America (1991), by leading conservative scholars
  • Fraser, Steve (2015). The Age of Acquiescence: The Life and Death of American Resistance to Organized Wealth and Power. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0316185434.
  • Garraty, John A. The New Commonwealth, 1877–1890, 1968 scholarly survey, strong on economic and political history
  • Jensen, Richard. "Democracy, Republicanism and Efficiency: The Values of American Politics, 1885–1930," in Byron Shafer and Anthony Badger, eds, Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775–2000 (U of Kansas Press, 2001) pp 149–180; online version
  • Kirkland, Edward C. Industry Comes of Age, Business, Labor, and Public Policy 1860–1897 (1961), standard survey
  • Kleppner; Paul. The Third Electoral System 1853–1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures U of North Carolina Press, (1979) online version
  • Morgan, H. Wayne. From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics, 1877–1896 (1969) online edition
  • Morgan, H. Wayne ed. The Gilded Age: A Reappraisal Syracuse University Press 1970. interpretive essays
  • Nevins, Allan. The Emergence of Modern America, 1865–1878 (1933) ISBN 0-403-01127-2, social history
  • Rees, Jonathan. Industrialization and the Transformation of American Life: A Brief Introduction (M.E. Sharpe, 2013) 139 pp
  • Schlesinger, Arthur M. The Rise of the City: 1877–1898 (1933), social history of big city life
  • Schlup, Leonard C. e James G. Ryan, Historical Dictionary of the Gilded Age, M.E. Sharpe, 2003.
  • Shannon, Fred A. The Farmer's Last Frontier: 1860–1897 (1945) survey of economic history online edition
  • Smythe, Ted Curtis; The Gilded Age Press, 1865–1900 (2003). online edition; newspapers and magazines
  • Stiles, T. J., The First Tycoon: The Epic Life of Cornelius Vanderbilt, Random House, 2010.; Pulitzer prize.
  • Trachtenberg, Alan. The incorporation of America: Culture and society in the gilded age (2007) chapter 5 online
  • Upchurch, Thomas Adams, Historical Dictionary of the Gilded Age, Scarecrow Press, 2009. 276pp
  • Wagner, David. Ordinary People: In and Out of Poverty in the Gilded Age (2008); traces people who were at one time in a poor house
  • White, Richard. "Corporations, Corruption, and the Modern Lobby: A Gilded Age Story of the West and the South in Washington, D.C.", Southern Spaces, 16 April 2009.
  • Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South, 1877--1913 (1951).
  • Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States, HarperCollins, 2005, ISBN 0-06-083865-5.
  • Link, William A., and Susannah J. Link, eds. The Gilded Age and Progressive Era: A Documentary Reader (2012) excerpt and text search

Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]