Xq28

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Xq28 è un marcatore genetico del cromosoma X trovato da Dean Hamer e altri nel 1993. Lo studio di Hamer portò a credere che era stato trovato un collegamento tra il marcatore Xq28 e l'omosessualità maschile[1] ma i risultati dello studio originale sono ancora oggetto di discussione[2].

Studio del 1993[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Lo studio effettuato nel 1993 da Dean Hamer ha esaminato 114 famiglie di uomini omosessuali in Italia e ha ipotizzato un'incidenza di omosessualità maggiore presso gli zii e i cugini materni ma non presso i familiari della linea paterna. È stata studiata l'associazione genetica presso le 40 famiglie in cui erano presenti due fratelli omosessuali. In circa il 64% dei casi è stata rilevata una correlazione tra il gene Xq28 e altri geni microsatelliti. Uno studio simile condotto dallo stesso gruppo nel 1995, sempre sul patrimonio genetico della popolazione italiana, ha confermato questi risultati ma non è riuscito a dimostrare una connessione tra Xq28 e le donne omosessuali[3]. Ciononostante, dei controversi studi sembrano aver dimostrato che la rimozione di un certo gene possa invertire i comportamenti omosessuali. Un gruppo di genetisti coreani ha alterato le preferenze sessuali di alcune femmine di topo, rimuovendo un singolo gene connesso al comportamento riproduttivo: senza tale gene, esse gravitavano intorno a topi del loro stesso sesso. Quelle che invece avevano mantenuto il gene FucM (fucosio-mutarotasi) erano attratte da topi di sesso maschile.

Studio del 1999 e del 2013[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Un ulteriore studio del 1999 ha messo in discussione tali risultati. Studiando il patrimonio genetico di 52 coppie di fratelli omosessuali canadesi, George Rice e altri non hanno trovato una connessione statisticamente significativa tra alleli e aplotipo e hanno concluso per la non-esistenza di un gene dell'omosessualità maschile correlato al cromosoma X[4]. Quando lo studio confutativo è stato pubblicato su Science, Hamer lo ha contestato, prestando fede ai propri risultati[5].

Nel 2012, il gruppo di ricerca indipendente American Society of Human Genetics organizzò uno studio su 409 paia di fratelli gay, analizzati in base a 300,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers.[6] Lo studio dimostra una forte correlazione con la regione pericentriomerica del cromosoma 8, parte sovrapposta a quella individuata dal laboratorio di Dean Hamer in uno studio di associazione genome-wide.[7] Gli autori di questo ultimo e più vasto studio conclusero che "le nostre scoperte, nel contesto dei lavori effettuati precedentemente, suggeriscono che la variazione genica in ognuna di queste regioni contribuisce allo sviluppo dell'importante tratto psicologico dell'orientamento sessuale".

Note[modifica | modifica sorgente]

  1. ^ DH Hamer, S Hu, VL Magnuson, N Hu e AM Pattatucci, A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation in Science, vol. 261, nº 5119, 1993, pp. 321–7, DOI:10.1126/science.8332896, PMID 8332896.
  2. ^ Doubt cast on 'gay gene', 23 aprile 1999, BBC News
  3. ^ Hu S, Pattatucci AM, Patterson C, Li L, Fulker DW, Cherny SS, Kruglyak L, Hamer DH, Linkage between sexual orientation and chromosome Xq28 in males but not in females. in Nature Genetics, vol. 11, nº 3, 1995, pp. 248–256, DOI:10.1038/ng1195-248, PMID 7581447.
  4. ^ G Rice, C Anderson, N Risch e G Ebers, Male Homosexuality: Absence of Linkage to Microsatellite Markers at Xq28 in Science, vol. 284, nº 5414, 1999, pp. 665–7, DOI:10.1126/science.284.5414.665, PMID 10213693.
  5. ^ Discovery of 'Gay Gene' Questioned, Ingrid Wickelgren, April 23, 1999
  6. ^ Genome-wide linkage scan of male sexual orientation. A. R. Sanders, K. Dawood, G. Rieger, J. A. Badner, E. S. Gershon, R. S. Krishnappa, A. B. Kolundzija, S. Guo, G. W. Beecham, E. R. Martin, J.M. Bailey8, Abstract 1957T. PMID 15645181
  7. ^ Mustanski BS, Dupree MG, Nievergelt CM, Bocklandt S, Schork NJ, Hamer DH (March 2005). "A genomewide scan of male sexual orientation". Hum. Genet. 116 (4): 272–8. <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs00439-004-1241-4" rel="nofollow" class="external text" style="text-decoration: underline; color: rgb(102, 51, 102); background-image: linear-gradient(transparent, transparent), 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background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); padding-right: 13px; font-size: 12px; line-height: 17.280000686645508px; background-position: 100% 50%, 100% 50%; background-repeat: no-repeat no-repeat;"></a>10.1007/s00439-004-1241-4.  <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier" class="mw-redirect" style="background-color: rgb(255, 255, 255); font-size: 12px; line-height: 17.280000686645508px;"></a>PMID <a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15645181" rel="nofollow" class="external text" style="color: rgb(102, 51, 102); background-image: linear-gradient(transparent, transparent), 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