Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System

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Motto in latino: Custos Custodum Ipsorum; "Guard of the Guardians Themselves" in inglese

Il sistema Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System (Aegis BMD o ABMD)[1] è un programma del United States Department of Defense Missile Defense Agency sviluppato per creare una difesa missilistica contro missili balistici di corto e medio raggio. Fa parte del United States national missile defense. Aegis BMD (anche noto come Sea-Based Midcourse) è disegnato per intercettare missili balistici in fase post-boost e prima del rientro in atmosfera.

È in grado su navi da guerra di colpire missili balistici aumentando l'azione del Aegis Combat System con l'aggiunta di radar AN/SPY-1 e missili standard. Vascelli con Aegis BMD possono trasmettere gli obiettivi al Ground-Based Midcourse Defense, se necessario, ingaggiando i bersagli con missili SM-2 o SM-3.[2][3] Aegis BMD non ha capacità di intercettare missili ICBM, e versioni future potranno avere capacità limitata in questo senso.[4]

Il sistema corrente utilizza tecnologia Lockheed Martin Aegis Weapon System e Raytheon RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 (SM-3). Altri subcontractor includono Boeing Defense, Space & Security, Alliant Techsystems (ATK), Honeywell, Naval Surface Warfare Center, SPAWAR Systems Center, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL), e Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (Lincoln Lab).

Storia e sviluppo[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Origini[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Standard Missile - 3 (SM-3) viene lanciato dalla Pearl Harbor Aegis cruiser USS Lake Erie. 17 novembre 2005
Aegis Ashore radar

Lo sviluppo maggiore di Aegis ballistic missile defense (ABMD) iniziò nella metà degli anni'80 come parte della strategia presidenziale di Ronald Reagan, Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Il sistema SDI inizialmente fu pensato come sistema railgun spaziale. Il sistema fu trasformato in sistema terrestre-navale, per i limiti tecnologici dell'epoca, in Lightweight Exo-atmospheric Projectile (LEAP).

Più tardi SDIO collaborò con la Navy per testare il LEAP sul missile RIM-2 Terrier. Il programma dimostrativo Terrier LEAP dal 1991 al 1995 eseguì quattro lanci. Due furono eseguiti agli inizi del 1995; entrambi fallirono l'intercettazione—il primo per un errore software il secondo per un problema al secondo stadio booster, un interruttore pirotecnico non alimentato.

Storia del programma e sviluppo[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Durante i tardi anni '90, la U.S. Navy fu incaricata di creare un sistema LEAP. Questa fase fu nota come Aegis LEAP Intercept (ALI) program. Il programma fu per il successo di due intercettazioni su cinque lanci. Il 13 giugno 2002, il secondo ALI avvenne con voli test dei missili FM-3. Il successo di Aegis BMD avvenne grazie alla decisione del presidente George W. Bush di dispiegare una forza di emergenza antimissile balistico nel 2004.

Una volta completato il test ALI, Aegis BMD fu avviato alla produzione. Il primo Block I di SM-3 fu consegnato nell'ottobre 2004, e l'Aegis 3.0 nel 2005.

Questo programma di difesa fu ulteriormente spinto dall'amministrazione Obama nel settembre 2009, quando dichiarò il dispiegamento del sistema terrestre in Polonia, al posto di quello sulle navi U.S. Navy.[5][6] Il 18 settembre 2009, il primo ministro Vladimir Putin dichiarò che questo era positivo per il fatto che vi sarebbero state meno navi nel Mar Nero equipaggiate con Aegis.[7][8] Nel 2009 diverse unità navali US Navy furono comunque equipaggiate con SM-3 in complemento ai sistemi Patriot già dispiegati. Già navi giapponesi e australiane sono atte ad operare con sistemi Aegis.[9][10]

Aegis BMD hardware include il missile SM-3 Block-1A e altri sistemi d'arma. In futuro Aegis BMD includerà capacità Launch on Remote, aggiornamento dell'avionica degli SM-3 e hardware, e aggiornamento Aegis Weapon System. Nel 2012 Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense si coniugherà con Aegis Open Architecture e vi saranno benefici per entrambe le piattaforme.[11] La capacità Launch on Remote include l'uso di sensori off-board, come lo Space Tracking and Surveillance System per l'ingaggio di bersagli agli SM-3.[12]

Le varianti Aegis BMD sono attualmente la 3.6.1 e la 4.0.1. La MDA e la US Navy pianificano lo sviluppo di varianti ulteriori come la 5.0, 5.1 e 5.2.

Aegis Ashore[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Una componente terrestre, Aegis Ashore, è pianificata. Questo sistema terrestre prevede l'utilizzo delle piattaforme navali su terra. Incluso i radar SPY-1 e batterie di missili standard 3. L'amministrazione Obama ha pianificato due siti in Europa: il primo in Romania a Deveselu nel 2015 e il secondo in Polonia nel 2018. Nel 2020, entrambi avranno a disposizione l'ultima versione Aegis BMD software e l'ultima versione di SM-3.[13] Altre basi radar saranno dispiegate in Turchia in futuro.[14][15][16][17] Il 21 maggio 2014, lo U.S. DOD scrisse, "Standard Missile Completes First Test Launch from Aegis Ashore Test Site," e riportò: "The Missile Defense Agency, the U.S. Navy, and sailors at the Aegis Ashore Missile Defense Test Complex and Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), successfully conducted the first flight test involving components of the Aegis Ashore system. During the test, a simulated ballistic missile target was acquired, tracked, and engaged by the Aegis Weapon System. At approximately 7:35 p.m. Hawaii Standard Time, May 20 (1:35 a.m. EDT, May 21), the Aegis Weapon System fired a Standard Missile (SM)-3 Block IB guided missile from the Vertical Launch System. Several fire control and engagement functions were exercised during the test. A live target missile launch was not planned for this flight test."

SM-3 e SM-2 Block IV interceptors[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

SM-3 Interceptor profile

L'Aegis BMD usa il missile RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 a medio raggio e il RIM-156 Standard Missile 2 Block IV (SM-2 Block IV) sviluppati dalla Raytheon. Il missile Standard Missile 3 è capace di intercettare missili balistici sopra l'atmosfera (exo-atmospheric intercept) durante la fase di metà volo. Il missile è lanciato dalla piattaforma MK 41 vertical launching system (VLS) di navi. Riceve informazioni sul bersaglio in volo dalla nave madre. La testata cinetica (KW) è disegnata per distruggere un missile balistico con oltre 130 MJ di energia cinetica in fase di collisione. Gli SM-3 Block IA verranno aggiornati allo standard SM-3 Block IB, SM-3 Block IIA e SM-3 Block IIB per ingaggi anti missile balistico. Gli SM-2 Block IV possono ingaggiare all'interno dell'atmosfera (endo-atmospheric intercept) in fase terminale del volo. Il missile contiene testate a frammentazione. Gli SM-2 Block IV verranno rimpiazzati dal RIM-174 (Standard Missile 6) interceptor.[18]

Dispiegamento[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

A gennaio 2014 solo U.S.A. e Giappone utilizzano Aegis BMD.[19]

U.S. Navy Aegis BMD[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Ci sono 5 Ticonderoga class cruisers e 25 Arleigh Burke class destroyers equipaggiati con BMD nella U.S. Navy. Di trenta navi, 16 sono assegnate alla flotta del Pacifico e 14 a quella atlantica.[20] Nei piani MDA e Navy il numero delle unità Aegis dovranno arrivare a 33 alla fine del 2014 e a 43 alla fine del 2019. Il piano trentennale (FY2015-FY2043) prevede in totale dalle 80 alle 97 unità equipaggiate Aegis.[21]

Giappone[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

La Kaijō Jieitai ha tre vascelli LRST e di ingaggio equipaggiati: JS Kongo, JS Chokai, JS Myoko, e nel 2010 la JS Kirishima.[22][23] Il ministro degli esteri, Hirofumi Nakasone e il ministro sudcoreano omologo, Yu Myung-hwan, segnarono un accordo il 5 aprile 2009, dopo il lancio[24] del satellite nordcoreano Unha-2, in violazione delle risoluzioni ONU 1695 e 1718 del luglio 2006. Il Governo giapponese approvò un ingaggio AEGIS BMD nell'eventualità di un fallimento del veicolo spaziale di Taepondong.[25][26][27][28] Il Governo giapponese notò inoltre che l'avallo governativo poteva essere bypassato secondo Articolo 82, Sezione 2, Paragrafo 3 della legge di autodifesa.[29] In totale, 5 distruttori AEGIS furono operativi all'epoca.[30] La capacità d'intercettazione fu in due stadi[31] delle quali la prima con SM-3 nella fase di boost e Patriot PAC-3 nella fase di rientro nello spazio aereo giapponese.[32] In aggiunta vi era la possibilità di velivoli della forza aerea. La discriminazione tra piattaforma di test e lancio satellitare è possibile analizzando l'angolo di salita.[33]

Reazioni internazionali[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

La Russia disse che il sistema alimentava una nuova corsa al riarmo e creata su pretesti ridicoli contro non precisati paesi rossi. Dmitry Rogozin, disse che la nazione avrebbe reagito nella maniera più tagliente contro ogni vascello americano nelle acque vicine a quelle russe.[34]

Altre capacità[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Il sistema Aegis BMD, in coppia con il RIM-161 Standard missile (SM-3), ha dimostrato una capacità limitata come arma anti-satellite per satelliti in orbita bassa (low Earth orbit). Il 20 febbraio 2008, il satellite USA 193 fu distrutto da navi Aegis nel Pacifico, per contrastare il pericolo di un rientro in atmosfera con dispersione di idrazina. Il lancio da nave fu eseguito dalla USS Lake Erie, e un SM-3 fu utilizzato. L'intercettazione avvenne a 133 miglia nautiche (247 km).

Bersaglio per la simulazione di volo endoatmosferico del DF-21 ASBM[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Come riportato dal Congressional Research Service del 31 luglio 2014,[21] è pianificato un test contro il missile balistico cinese DF-21 ASBM.

Lanci di prova[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Al 1º agosto 2015 Aegis BMDS ha effettuato 31 intercettazioni su 37 lanci dal mare.[35]

Name Date Result Description[36][37][38]
CTV-1 000000001997-09-26-0000Sep 26, 1997 Failure The first flight test for the Navy Theater Wide program's Control Test Vehicle-1 (CTV-1) was on September 26, 1997, using a SM-2 Block IV missile modified for exo-atmospheric flight and launched from the USS Russell (DDG 59). The missile self-destructed soon after launch after veering off course. The root cause of this problem was due to a defect in the Navy's existing SM-2 Block IV ordnance, not due to any guidance modifications for high altitude flight. The Navy and BMDO thus characterized the flight as a "No-Test."
CTV-1A 000000001999-09-24-0000Sep 24, 1999 Success The next flight for Raytheon's SM-3 came on September 24, 1999, during Control Test Vehicle (CTV)-1A (Codename: Stellar Phoenix). CTV-1a was a test of the first and second stage of the SM-3. The mission was considered a success. The USS Shiloh was the launching ship.
FTR-1 000000002000-07-08-0000Jul 8, 2000 Failure The next mission was conducted in July 2000 and designated Flight Test Round (FTR-1) (Codename: Stellar Archer). This mission ended in failure when the Third Stage Rocket Motor (TSRM) failed to separate from the second stage. The USS Shiloh was the launching ship.
FTR-1A 000000002001-01-25-0000Jan 25, 2001 Success FTR-1a (Codename: Stellar Gemini) was conducted on January 25, 2001. This mission would be the first time a live unitary target was engaged by the Aegis BMD system. The test target was launched from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility located on the Hawaiian island of Kauai.

FTR-1a would demonstrate exo-atmospheric avionics operation of the SM-3 Kinetic Warhead (KW) and the real-time performance of the Aegis BMD AN/SPY-1 radar. At the time this test was conducted, the KW's propulsion system, the Solid Divert and Attitude Control System (SDACS), was still being developed. Total system operation was demonstrated in FM-2. The mission was considered successful when the KW acquired and tracked the test target for several seconds. The USS Lake Erie was the launching ship.

FM-2 000000002002-01-25-0000Jan 25, 2002 Success The purpose of Flight Mission (FM)-2 (Codename: Stellar Eagle) was to characterize the Aegis Weapon System and Standard Missile 3 interceptor. The mission was not required to intercept the target. On January 25, 2002, an SM-3 launched from the USS Lake Erie collided with a test target northeast of the island of Kauai. This mission was the first interception of a ballistic missile from a sea-based platform.
FM-3 000000002002-06-13-0000Jun 13, 2002 Success Aegis BMD succeeded in intercepting a unitary target missiles launched from PMRF during FM-3 (Codename: Stellar Impact). The USS Lake Erie was the firing ship. This mission marked the successful completion of the Aegis LEAP Intercept program. June 13, 2002 was also the date that the United States withdrew from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty), which limited the development of a strategic anti-ballistic missile system (to be considered strategic Aegis would need capability against the current Russian ICBMs and SLBMs).
FM-4 000000002001-11-21-0000Nov 21, 2001 Success Aegis BMD intercepted a unitary ballistic missile during FM-4 (Codename: Stellar Viper). FM-4 was the first Aegis BMD test to conduct the "aimpoint shift" maneuver. The aimpoint shift increases the probability that the ballistic missile ordnance will be destroyed at intercept. The USS Lake Erie was the launching ship.
FM-5 000000002003-06-18-0000Jun 18, 2003 Failure On June 18, 2003 the FM-5 mission (Codename: Stellar Hammer) resulted in the first test failure of an operational Aegis BMD system. During the test, the SDACS propulsion system used to guide the SM-3's kinetic warhead suffered a malfunction after ignition. It is important to note that prior to the rocket motor failure the SM-3 kinetic warhead was on an intercept course with the test target. The USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FM-6 000000002003-12-11-0000Dec 11, 2003 Success The next mission, Codename: Stellar Defender, implemented a modification to the SDACS design so as not to endanger the warhead's ability to intercept. This override allowed the KW to navigate with reduced (but no less lethal) capability. FM-6 once again featured a successful interception. The USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FTM-04-1 000000002005-02-24-0000Feb 24, 2005 Success After the FM-6 mission, the Missile Defense Agency implemented a change to the flight test naming convention for all subsequent ABMD flight tests. According to MDA the new convention better reflected the program's position within the Block 2004/2006 schema of development. The new name, Flight Test Mission (FTM) 04-1 (Codename: Stellar Dragon), indicated that this would be the first flight test under the Block 2004 development cycle for Aegis BMD. The flight test demonstrated yet again the system's ability to destroy an enemy ballistic missile. The USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FTM-04-2 000000002005-11-17-0000Nov 17, 2005 Success Codename Stellar Valkyrie), this was the first mission to utilize a target missile with a separating warhead. This new target missile, termed a Medium Range Target (MRT) more closely resembled real world threat missiles, but the SM-3 Block I missile was not fooled and intercepted the warhead to score the sixth interception for the program out of seven tries on November 17, 2005. The USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.
FTM-10 000000002006-06-23-0000Jun 23, 2006 Success The FTM-10 test target was the MRT with a separating warhead. The USS Shiloh was the launching ship and utilized the Aegis Weapon System version 3.6 for the first time. This test was the first to feature the latest model of the SM-3, the Block Ia. The mission was considered a success when the KW tracked, selected and intercepted the MRT reentry vehicle (RV).

FTM-10 marked the first time another country participated in a sea-based anti-ballistic missile exercise. The Japanese government was interested in purchasing a system similar to Aegis BMD to deter potential threats and was invited to participate in the FTM-10 exercise. The Japanese naval vessel JDS Kirishima (a Kongō-class destroyer) was stationed off the coast of PMRF and observed all FTM-10 events.[39]

FTM-11 000000002006-12-07-0000Dec 7, 2006 Failure Due to an onboard error, the Aegis Weapon System failed to engage the test target and never launched the interceptor. The error was discovered and corrected prior to the retest of FTM-11 test flight. The USS Lake Erie was the firing ship.[40]
FTM-11 Event 4 000000002007-04-26-0000Apr 26, 2007 Success Aegis BMD successfully intercepted its eighth target in ten attempts. This test marked the 27th successful "Hit-to-Kill" intercept (for all MDA systems) since 2001. The USS Lake Erie was the launching ship and utilized the Aegis 3.6 Weapon System. The interceptor was the SM-3 Block-Ia. This test not only demonstrated the ability of ABMD to intercept a ballistic missile but also demonstrated the Lake Erie's ability to simultaneously track and intercept antiship missiles. This test also utilized the Solid Divert and Attitude Control System (SDACS), in the full pulse configuration.[41]
FTM-11A 000000002007-08-31-0000Aug 31, 2007 Success Classified flight test.[42]
FTM-12 000000002007-06-22-0000Jun 22, 2007 Success The USS Decatur, using the operationally-certified Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Weapon System (BMD 3.6) and the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA missile, successfully performed a "hit to kill" intercept of a separating, medium range, ballistic missile. The target missile was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii. The Ticonderoga-class cruiser USS Port Royal, Spain's Álvaro de Bazán class frigate MÉNDEZ NÚÑEZ (F-104), and MDA's Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) mobile ground-based radar also participated in the flight test. FTM-12 (Codename: Stellar Athena) was the first to use an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer as the launching ship.[43]
FTM-13 000000002007-11-06-0000Nov 6, 2007 Success The USS Lake Erie launched two interceptors off the island of Kauai, Hawaii, engaging two short-range ballistic missile targets almost simultaneously.
FTM-14 000000002008-06-06-0000Jun 6, 2008 Success The USS Lake Erie successfully intercepted a terminal phase target with a modified SM-2 Block IV interceptor. The aim of this mission was to test the interception and destruction of a short range ballistic missile target launched from a mobile launch platform.[44]
FTM-15 000000002011-04-15-0000Apr 15, 2011 Success the Missile Defense Agency (MDA), the USS O'Kane (DDG-77), and the 94th Army Air and Missile Defense Command operating from the 613th Air and Space Operations Center at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) element of the nation's Ballistic Missile Defense System, resulting in the intercept of a separating ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean. FTM-15, was the most challenging test to date, as it was the first Aegis BMD version 3.6.1 intercept against an intermediate-range target (range 1,864 to 3,418 miles) and the first Aegis BMD 3.6.1 engagement relying on remote tracking data. The ability to use remote radar data to engage a threat ballistic missile greatly increases the battle space and defended area of the SM-3 missile.[45]
FTM-16 Event 1 000000002011-03-15-0000Mar 15, 2011 Success The USS Lake Erie successfully tracked a ballistic missile target. In addition to the BMD mission, LAKE ERIE also validated the ship's Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) capability by destroying an incoming anti-ship cruise missile target with an SM-2 Block III missile in a live firing exercise. This was the first event in which a ship used BMD 4.0.1 Weapon System to engage an AAW threat.[46]
FTM-16 Event 2 000000002011-09-01-0000Sep 1, 2011 Failure A short-range ballistic missile target was launched from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii. Approximately 90 seconds later, a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block 1B interceptor missile was launched from the cruiser USS Lake Erie (CG-70) but an intercept of the target was not achieved. The failure was due to a third stage rocket motor pulse failure[35][47]
FTM-16 Event 2A 000000002012-05-09-0000May 9, 2012 Success The USS Lake Erie (CG-70) successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the first intercept of a short-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Navy's newest Missile Defense interceptor, the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB.[48]
FTM-17 000000002009-07-30-0000Jul 30, 2009 Success The USS Hopper (DDG 70), detected, tracked, fired and guided a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block (Blk) IA to intercept a sub-scale short range ballistic missile.[35][49]
FTM-18 000000002012-06-27-0000Jun 27, 2012 Success The USS Lake Erie (CG-70) successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a separating ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Navy's newest missile defense interceptor missile, the Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB. The test event was the second consecutive successful intercept test of the SM-3 Block IB missile and the second-generation Aegis BMD 4.0.1 weapon system. The first successful SM-3 Block IB intercept occurred on May 9, 2012.[50][51]
FTM-19 000000002013-05-16-0000May 16, 2013 Success The USS Lake Erie (CG-70) successfully conducted a flight test today of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a separating ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Aegis BMD 4.0 Weapon System and a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB missile. This test exercised the latest version of the second-generation Aegis BMD Weapon System and Standard Missile, providing capability for engagement of longer-range and more sophisticated ballistic missiles.[52]
FTM-20 000000002013-02-13-0000Feb 13, 2013 Success The USS Lake Erie (CG-70) successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA guided missile. The in-orbit Space Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrators (STSS-D) detected and tracked the target, and forwarded track data to the USS Lake Erie. The ship, equipped with the second-generation Aegis BMD weapon system, used Launch on Remote doctrine to engage the target. This event, designated Flight Test Standard Missile 20 (FTM-20), was a demonstration of the ability of space-based assets to provide mid-course fire control quality data to an Aegis BMD ship, extending the battlespace, providing the ability for longer range intercepts and defense of larger areas.[53]
FTO-1 000000002013-09-10-0000Sep 10, 2013 Success FTO-01 was conducted in the vicinity of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll/Reagan Test Site and surrounding areas in the western Pacific. The test stressed the ability of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) and Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) weapon systems to function in a layered defense architecture and defeat a raid of two near-simultaneous ballistic missile targets. The USS Decatur with its Aegis Weapon System detected and tracked the first target with its onboard AN/SPY-1 radar. The Aegis BMD weapon system developed a fire control solution, launched a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA missile, and successfully intercepted the target.

In a demonstration of BMDS layered defense capabilities, a second AN/TPY-2 radar in Terminal Mode, located with the THAAD weapon system, acquired and tracked the target missiles. THAAD developed a fire control solution, launched a THAAD interceptor missile, and successfully intercepted the second medium-range ballistic missile target. THAAD was operated by soldiers from the Alpha Battery, 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment. As a planned demonstration of THAAD's layered defense capabilities, a second THAAD interceptor was launched at the target destroyed by Aegis as a contingency in the event the SM-3 did not achieve an intercept.[54]

FTM-21 000000002013-09-18-0000Sep 18, 2013 Success The USS Lake Erie (CG-70) successfully conducted a flight test today of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a complex separating short-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Aegis BMD 4.0 Weapon System and a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB guided missile. This was an operationally realistic test, in which the target's launch time and bearing are not known in advance, and the target complex was the most difficult target engaged to date.[55]
FTM-22 000000002013-10-03-0000Oct 3, 2013 Success The USS Lake Erie (CG-70) successfully conducted an operational flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in the intercept of a medium-range ballistic missile target over the Pacific Ocean by the Aegis BMD 4.0 Weapon System and a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB guided missile. FTM-22 is the 28th successful intercept in 34 flight test attempts for the Aegis BMD program since flight testing began in 2002. Across all Ballistic Missile Defense System programs, this is the 64th successful hit-to-kill intercept in 80 flight test attempts since 2001.
Stellar Daggars 000000002009-03-26-0000Mar 26, 2009 Success The USS Benfold simultaneously engaged a SRBM in terminal phase and a cruise missile using SM-2s.[56]
JFTM-1 000000002001-12-17-0000Dec 17, 2001 Success The JFTM-1 test event verified the new engagement capability of the Aegis BMD configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Kongo (DDG-173). At approximately 12:05 pm (HST), 7:05 am Tokyo time on Dec. 18, 2007, a ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. JS Kongo crew members detected and tracked the target. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution and at approximately 12:08 pm (HST), 7:08 am Tokyo time, a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA was launched. Approximately 3 minutes later, the SM-3 successfully intercepted the target approximately 100 miles above the Pacific Ocean.[57]
JFTM-2 000000002008-11-19-0000Nov 19, 2008 Failure JFTM-2 was a test of the newest engagement capability of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Chokai (DDG-176). At approximately 4:21 pm (HST), 11:21 am (Tokyo time) a ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. JS Chokai crew members detected and tracked the target using an advanced on-board radar. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution, and at approximately 4:24 pm (HST), 11:24 am (Tokyo time) on Nov 20, a single Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA was launched. Approximately two minutes later, the SM-3 failed to intercept the target. The cause of the failure was due a SM-3 Block IA interceptor divert and attitude control malfunction.[35][58]
JFTM-3 000000002008-11-19-0000Nov 19, 2008 Success The JFTM-3 test event verified the newest engagement capability of the Japan Aegis BMD configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Myoko (DDG-175). At approximately 6:00pm (HST), 1:00 pm Tokyo time on Oct 28, a separating, medium-range ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. JS Myoko crew members detected and tracked the target. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution and, at approximately 6:04pm (HST), 1:04 pm Tokyo time a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA interceptor missile was launched. Approximately 3 minutes later, the SM-3 successfully intercepted the target approximately 100 miles above the Pacific Ocean.[59]
JFTM-4 000000002010-10-28-0000Oct 28, 2010 Success The JFTM-4 test event verified the newest engagement capability of the Japan Aegis BMD configuration of the recently upgraded Japanese destroyer, JS Krishima. At approximately 5:06 p.m. (HST), 12:06 p.m. Tokyo time on Oct. 29, 2010, a separating 1,000 km class ballistic missile target was launched from the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii.

JS Kirishima crew members detected and tracked the target. The Aegis Weapon System then developed a fire control solution and launched a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IA missile. Approximately three minutes later, the SM-3 successfully intercepted the target approximately 100 miles above the Pacific Ocean.[60]

FTI-01 000000002012-10-25-0000Oct 25, 2012 Failure The live-fire demonstration, conducted at U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll/Reagan Test Site, Hickam AFB, and surrounding areas in the western Pacific, stressed the performance of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD), THAAD, and PATRIOT (PAC-3) weapon systems. The USS Fitzgerald successfully engaged a low flying cruise missile over water. The Aegis system also tracked and launched an SM-3 Block 1A interceptor against a Short-Range Ballistic Missile. However, despite indication of a nominal flight of the SM-3 Block 1A interceptor, there was no indication of an intercept of the SRBM. The failure was attributed to an Inertial Measurement Unit failure.[35][61]
Pacific BlitZ 000000002008-11-01-0000Nov 1, 2008 Mixed Pacific Blitz was the first U.S. Navy proficiency firing to employ the SM-3 missile against a ballistic missile target. During the Fleet Exercise "Pacific Blitz", two Pearl Harbor-based Aegis BMD destroyers, USS Paul Hamilton (DDG-60) and USS Hopper (DDG-70) fired SM-3 missiles at separate targets. Upon detecting and tracking the target, USS Paul Hamilton launched an SM-3 missile resulting in a direct hit. The USS Hopper successfully detected, monitored and fired at the second target, but the interceptor missed. The cause of the failure was attributed to an infrared seeker failure[35][62][63]
Pacific Phoenix 000000002006-05-06-0000May 6, 2006 Success The USS Lake Erie successfully intercepted a Unitary short-range target.[35][42]
FTM-25 000000002014-11-06-0000Nov 6, 2014 Success The USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53) successfully conducted a flight test of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, resulting in three successful near-simultaneous target engagements over the Pacific Ocean. One short-range ballistic missile target was intercepted by a Standard Missile 3 (SM-3) Block IB guided missile, while two low-flying cruise missile targets were engaged by Standard Missile 2 (SM-2) Block IIIA guided missiles near-simultaneously.
MMW event 1 000000002015-07-28-0000July 28, 2015 Success A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) target was launched from PMRF in a northwesterly trajectory. The USS John Paul Jones, positioned west of Hawaii, detected, tracked, and launched a SM-6 Dual I missile, resulting in a successful target intercept.
MMW event 2 000000002015-07-29-0000July 29, 2015 Success A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) target was launched from PMRF in a northwesterly trajectory. The USS John Paul Jones, positioned west of Hawaii, detected, tracked, and launched a SM-6 Dual I missile, resulting in a successful target intercept.
MTMD 000000002015-10-20-0000October 20, 2015 Success A Terrier-Orion short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) target was launched from the UK's Hebrides Range, northwest of Scotland. With multinational vessels in the North Atlantic participating in Maritime Theater Missile Defense, the USS Ross launched a SM-3 Block IA missile, resulting in a successful target intercept.

Galleria d'immagini[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Note[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  1. ^ Navy Tactical Reference Publication 1-02, Navy Supplement To The DOD Dictionary Of Military And Associated Terms, April 2011.
  2. ^ Aegis BMD web page Archiviato il 25 gennaio 2014 in Internet Archive., U.S. Missile Defense Agency official website.
  3. ^ Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress Archiviato l'11 agosto 2014 in Internet Archive..
  4. ^ https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RL33745.pdf.
  5. ^ RIM-161 SM-3 (AEGIS Ballistic Missile Defense), spacewar.com.
  6. ^ NY Times article, 9/18/09.
  7. ^ Russia's Putin praises Obama's missile defense decision, LA Times, 9/19/09.
  8. ^ No missile defense in Eastern Europe, foreignpolicy.com, 9/17/09.
  9. ^ Obama sharply alters missile defense plans By William H. McMichael, Sep 19, 2009, navytimes.com.
  10. ^ Article on Sm-3 missile system, strategypage.com, 10/4/09.
  11. ^ Lockheed Martin Successfully Completes Formal Testing of Second-Generation Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Capability[collegamento interrotto] [dead link]
  12. ^ "Force Multiplier Capability Of Aegis Demonstrated.".
  13. ^ Administration eyes land-based SPY, by Philip Ewing, Oct 24, 2010. [dead link]
  14. ^ Turkey to Host U.S. Missile Defense[collegamento interrotto], PR Newswire, Oct. 18, 2010. [dead link]
  15. ^ Aegis Ashore web page Archiviato il 31 gennaio 2016 in Internet Archive., U.S. Missile Defense Agency official website.
  16. ^ International Cooperation web page Archiviato il 1º febbraio 2016 in Internet Archive., U.S. Missile Defense Agency official website.
  17. ^ "Inside Aegis Ashore".
  18. ^ Aegis Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) System, United States of America.
  19. ^ "Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense - Foreign Military Sales" Archiviato il 13 ottobre 2013 in Internet Archive..
  20. ^ BMD ELEMENTS - Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Archiviato il 25 gennaio 2014 in Internet Archive..
  21. ^ a b Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress.
  22. ^ Swaine, Michael D.; Swanger, Rachel M.; Kawakami, Takashi (2001).
  23. ^ Shabalin, Maxim (2011).
  24. ^ North Korea Rocket Flew Over Japan, Government Says (Update1) - Bloomberg.
  25. ^ Asia Times Online :: Korea News and Korean Business and Economy, Pyongyang News.
  26. ^ Let'S Shoot Something Down!.
  27. ^ http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jkw_Pm4GLFW4c9Bxvz2TiZnxacqA.
  28. ^ Japan to ready defense against N.Korea rocket: Kyodo | Reuters.
  29. ^ Copia archiviata, su mdn.mainichi.jp. URL consultato il 24 marzo 2009 (archiviato dall'url originale il 26 marzo 2009).> [dead link]
  30. ^ Allied Warships on Alert Over N. Korean Rocket Launch.
  31. ^ http://www.asahi.com/english/Herald-asahi/TKY200903300055.html [dead link]
  32. ^ Copia archiviata, su breitbart.com. URL consultato il 27 marzo 2009 (archiviato dall'url originale il 13 giugno 2011). [dead link]
  33. ^ Union of Concerned Scientists: Unha-2 analysis, March 18, 2009.
  34. ^ "Russia will ‘React Sharply’ to US Aegis Ships – Deputy PM.".
  35. ^ a b c d e f g Copia archiviata, su mda.mil. URL consultato il 28 dicembre 2015 (archiviato dall'url originale il 9 dicembre 2015)..
  36. ^ "Missile Defense Integrated Test Flights" (PDF).
  37. ^ "Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD)" (PDF).
  38. ^ "Ballistic Missile Defense Intercept Flight Test Record" Archiviato l'11 settembre 2013 in Internet Archive. (PDF).
  39. ^ Jan TenBruggencate (23 June 2006), "Missile passes another test", The Honolulu Advertiser.
  40. ^ Chris Taylor, (December 7, 2006), "For Your Informantion", Missile Defense Agency Archiviato il febbraio 7, 2007 Data nell'URL non combaciante: 7 febbraio 2007 in Internet Archive. [dead link]
  41. ^ Chris Taylor (April 26, 2007) Archiviato il luglio 14, 2009 Data nell'URL non combaciante: 14 luglio 2009 in Internet Archive..
  42. ^ a b Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Testing Archiviato il 28 luglio 2014 in Internet Archive..
  43. ^ Chris Taylor (June 22, 2007) Archiviato il luglio 11, 2007 Data nell'URL non combaciante: 11 luglio 2007 in Internet Archive..
  44. ^ Successful Sea-Based Missile Defense Intercept.
  45. ^ Sea-based Missile Defense Flight Test Results in Successful Intercept Archiviato il 30 marzo 2012 in Internet Archive..
  46. ^ Aegis Future Capabilities Archiviato il 1º ottobre 2014 in Internet Archive..
  47. ^ Sea-Based Missile Defense Test Conducted Archiviato il 4 agosto 2014 in Internet Archive..
  48. ^ Second-Generation Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Completes Successful Intercept Flight Test Archiviato il 17 ottobre 2014 in Internet Archive..
  49. ^ Second-Generation Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Completes Second Successful Intercept Flight Test Archiviato il 17 ottobre 2014 in Internet Archive..
  50. ^ Second-Generation Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Completes Second Successful Intercept Flight Test Archiviato il 20 febbraio 2013 in Internet Archive..
  51. ^ Lockheed Martin’s Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Successfully Intercepts Second Target This Year.
  52. ^ Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Completes Successful Intercept Flight Test Archiviato il 28 luglio 2014 in Internet Archive..
  53. ^ Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Intercepts Target Using Space Tracking and Surveillance System-Demonstrators (STSS-D) Data Archiviato il 17 ottobre 2014 in Internet Archive..
  54. ^ Successful Missile Defense Test Against Multiple Targets Archiviato il 1º gennaio 2016 in Internet Archive..
  55. ^ Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense System Completes Successful Intercept Flight Test Archiviato il 15 agosto 2014 in Internet Archive..
  56. ^ Copia archiviata, su news.navy.mil. URL consultato il 31 marzo 2009 (archiviato dall'url originale il 10 aprile 2009). [dead link]
  57. ^ Japan/U.S. Missile Defense Flight Test Successful Archiviato il 3 marzo 2016 in Internet Archive..
  58. ^ Japan/U.S. Missile Defense Flight Test Completed Archiviato il 4 marzo 2016 in Internet Archive..
  59. ^ Japan/U.S. Missile Defense Flight Test Successful Archiviato il 17 ottobre 2014 in Internet Archive..
  60. ^ Joint Japan-U.S. Missile Defense Flight Test Successful Archiviato il 17 ottobre 2014 in Internet Archive..
  61. ^ Ballistic Missile Defense System Engages Five Targets Simultaneously During Largest Missile Defense Flight Test in History Archiviato il 16 febbraio 2013 in Internet Archive..
  62. ^ Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Warfighter Archiviato il 22 ottobre 2012 in Internet Archive..
  63. ^ U.S. Navy Missile Defense Test Shoots One-For-Two.

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