Lealisti (rivoluzione americana)
I lealisti furono i coloni americani che rimasero fedeli al regno di Gran Bretagna ed alla monarchia inglese durante la rivoluzione americana. Erano spesso chiamati col nome di Tories, Royalists, oppure Uomini del Re dai rivoluzionari (ovvero da coloro che sostenevano la causa americana). Molti lealisti, avendo una difficile condizione di vita nelle mani dei patrioti americani, abbandonarono le colonie stabilendosi nel Nord America Britannico (in posti come il Canada, dove presero il nome di Lealisti dell'Impero Unito) oppure nelle Indie Occidentali Britanniche (come le Bahamas). Tra loro vi erano anche i Black Loyalists.
Gli storici hanno stimato che erano lealisti tra il 15 ed il 20% della popolazione. Lo storico Robert Middlekauff stima che circa 500.000 coloni (ovvero il 19% della popolazione bianca) rimase fedele alla Gran Bretagna.
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Bibliografia[modifica | modifica sorgente]
- Bailyn, Bernard. The Contagion of Liberty. In The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution, enlarged edition, 230-319. (1992).
- Bailyn, Bernard. The Ordeal of Thomas Hutchinson: Loyalism and the Destruction of the First British Empire (1974), full scale biography of the most prominent Loyalist
- Bradley, James E. "The Reprieve of a Loyalist: Count Rumford's Invitation Home." New England Quarterly 1974 47(3): 368-385. ISSN 0028-4866 in Jstor
- Brown, Wallace. The King's Friends: The Composition and Motives of the American Loyalist Claimants (1966).
- Calhoon, Robert M. "Loyalism and neutrality" in Jack P. Greene and J.R. Pole, eds., The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (1991)
- Calhoon, Robert M. The Loyalists in Revolutionary America, 1766-1781 (1973), the most detailed study
- Robert M. Calhoon, Timothy M. Barnes and George A. Rawlyk, eds. Loyalists and Community in North America (1994).
- Jensen, Merrill; The New Nation: A History of the United States during the Confederation, 1781-1789 1950; detailed discussion of return of Loyalists, popular anger at their return; repeal of wartime laws against them
- Kermes, Stephanie. "'I Wish for Nothing More Ardent upon Earth, than to See My Friends and Country Again': The Return of Massachusetts Loyalists." Historical Journal of Massachusetts 2002 30(1): 30-49. ISSN 0276-8313
- Kerber, Linda. Women of the Republic: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America (1997)
- Knowles, Norman. Inventing the Loyalists: The Ontario Loyalist Tradition and the Creation of Usable Pasts (1997) explores the identities and loyalties of those who moved to Canada.
- Lohrenz, Otto; "The Advantage of Rank and Status: Thomas Price, a Loyalist Parson of Revolutionary Virginia." The Historian. 60#3 (1998) pp 561+. online
- Middlekauff, Robert. "The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution, 1763–1789." (2005 edition)
- Moore, Christopher. The Loyalist: Revolution Exile Settlement. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, (1994).
- Mason, Keith. “The American Loyalist Diaspora and the Reconfiguration of the British Atlantic World.” In Empire and Nation: The American Revolution and the Atlantic World, ed. Eliga H. Gould and Peter S. Onuf (2005).
- Nelson, William H. The American Tory (1961)
- Norton, Mary Beth. Liberty's Daughters: The Revolutionary Experience of American Women, 1750-1800 (1996)
- Peck, Epaphroditus; The Loyalists of Connecticut Yale University Press, (1934) online
- Potter, Janice. The Liberty We Seek: Loyalist Ideology in Colonial New York and Massachusetts (1983).
- Quarles, Benjamin; Black Mosaic: Essays in Afro-American History and Historiography University of Massachusetts Press. (1988)
- Smith, Paul H. "The American Loyalists: Notes on Their Organization and Numerical Strength," William and Mary Quarterly 25 (1968): 259-77. in JSTOR
- Van Tyne, Claude Halstead. The Loyalists in the American Revolution (1902) online
- Mason Wade, The French Canadians: 1760-1945 (1955) 2 vol.
Voci correlate[modifica | modifica sorgente]
Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica sorgente]
- "Who were the Loyalists" by Ann Mackenzie (5-page, in pdf format)
- "Black Loyalists: Our History, Our People"
- "Remembering Black Loyalists, Black Communities in Nova Scotia"
- American Loyalists
- Online books
- South Carolina
- The On-Line Institute for Advanced Loyalist Studies
- North Carolina Loyalists During the American Revolution
- Loyalist Page - Cyndi's List
- Why Were Some of Our Ancestors Tories?
- James Chalmers and "Plain Truth" (A Loyalist Answers Thomas Paine)
- Haldimand Collection The main source for historians in the study of the settlement of the American Loyalists in Canada. More than 20 thousand letters and documents, now fully indexed, and free on the Web.
- Benjamin Franklin to Baron Francis Maseres, June 26, 1785 (Opinion of Benjamin Franklin on persons who called themselves "Loyalists", whom he judged better called "Royalists")
- The Loyalist Link: The Forest and The Sea - Port Roseway Loyalists