Argon2

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Argon2 è una derivazione di una chiave crittografica che fu selezionata come vincitrice della competizione sul Password Hashing nel luglio 2015[1][2] Fu progettata da Alex Biryukov, Daniel Dinu, e Dmitry Khovratovich dall'Università del Lussemburgo.[3] Argon2 è stata rilasciata con licenza Creative Commons CC0 (i.e. pubblico dominio), e fornita in 3 diverse versioni:

  • Argon2d
  • Argon2i
  • Argon2id

Algoritmo[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Function Argon2
   Inputs:
      password (P):       Bytes (0..232-1)    Password (or message) to be hashed
      salt (S):           Bytes (8..232-1)    Salt (16 bytes recommended for password hashing)
      parallelism (p):    Number (1..224-1)   Degree of parallelism (i.e. number of threads)
      tagLength (T):      Number (4..232-1)   Desired number of returned bytes
      memorySizeKB (m):   Number (8p..232-1) Amount of memory (in kibibytes) to use
      iterations (t):     Number (1..232-1)   Number of iterations to perform
      version (v):        Number (0x13)      The current version is 0x13 (19 decimal)
      key (K):            Bytes (0..232-1)    Optional key (Errata: PDF says 0..32 bytes, RFC says 0..232 bytes)
      associatedData (X): Bytes (0..232-1)    Optional arbitrary extra data
      hashType (y):       Number (0=Argon2d, 1=Argon2i, 2=Argon2id)
   Output:
      tag:                Bytes (tagLength)   The resulting generated bytes, tagLength bytes long

   Generate initial 64-byte block H0.
   All the input parameters are concatenated and input as a source of additional entropy.
   Errata: RFC says H0 is 64-bits; PDF says H0 is 64-bytes.
   Errata: RFC says the Hash is H^, the PDF says it's ℋ (but doesn't document what ℋ is). It's actually Blake2b.
   Variable length items are prepended with their length as 32-bit little-endian integers.
   buffer ← parallelism ∥ tagLength ∥ memorySizeKB ∥ iterations ∥ version ∥ hashType
         ∥ Length(password)       ∥ Password
         ∥ Length(salt)           ∥ salt
         ∥ Length(key)            ∥ key
         ∥ Length(associatedData) ∥ associatedData
   H0 ← Blake2b(buffer, 64) //default hash size of Blake2b is 64-bytes

   Calculate number of 1 KB blocks by rounding down memorySizeKB to the nearest multiple of 4*parallelism kilobytes
   blockCount ← Floor(memorySizeKB, 4*parallelism)

   Allocate two-dimensional array of 1 KiB blocks (parallelism rows x columnCount columns)
   columnCount ← blockCount / parallelism;   //In the RFC, columnCount is referred to as q

   Compute the first and second block (i.e. column zero and one ) of each lane (i.e. row)
   for i ← 0 to parallelism-1 do for each row
      Bi[0] ← Hash(H0 ∥ 0 ∥ i, 1024) //Generate a 1024-byte digest
      Bi[1] ← Hash(H0 ∥ 1 ∥ i, 1024) //Generate a 1024-byte digest

   Compute remaining columns of each lane
   for i ← 0 to parallelism-1 do //for each row
      for j ← 2 to columnCount-1 do //for each subsequent column
         //i' and j' indexes depend if it's Argon2i, Argon2d, or Argon2id (See section 3.4)
         i′, j′ ← GetBlockIndexes(i, j)
         Bi[j] = G(Bi[j-1], Bi′[j′])

   Further passes when iterations > 1
   for nIteration ← 2 to iterations do
      for i ← 0 to parallelism-1 do for each row
        for j ← 2 to columnCount-1 do //for each subsequent column
           //i' and j' indexes depend if it's Argon2i, Argon2d, or Argon2id (See section 3.4)
           i′, j′ ← GetBlockIndexes(i, j)
           Bi[0] = G(Bi[columnCount-1], Bi′[j′])
           Bi[j] = G(Bi[j-1], Bi′[j′])

   Compute final block C as the XOR of the last column of each row
   C ← B0[columnCount-1]
   for i ← 1 to parallelism-1 do
      C ← C xor Bi[columnCount-1]

   Compute output tag
   return Hash(C, tagLength)

Funzione di hash a lunghezza variabile[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Argon2 fa uso di una funzione di hash capace di produrre digest lunghi fino 232 byte. Questa funzione di hash è costruita internamente su Blake2.

Function Hash(message, digestSize)
   Inputs:
      message:         Bytes (0..232-1)     Message to be hashed
      digestSize:      Integer (1..232)     Desired number of bytes to be returned
   Output:
      digest:          Bytes (digestSize)   The resulting generated bytes, digestSize bytes long

   Hash is a variable-length hash function, built using Blake2b, capable of generating
   digests up to 232 bytes.

   If the requested digestSize is 64-bytes or lower, then we use Blake2b directly
   if (digestSize <= 64) then
      return Blake2b(digestSize ∥ message, digestSize) //concatenate 32-bit little endian digestSize with the message bytes

   For desired hashes over 64-bytes (e.g. 1024 bytes for Argon2 blocks),
   we use Blake2b to generate twice the number of needed 64-byte blocks,
   and then only use 32-bytes from each block

   Calculate the number of whole blocks (knowing we're only going to use 32-bytes from each)
   r ← Ceil(digestSize/32)-1;

   Generate r whole blocks.
   Initial block is generated from message
   V1 ← Blake2b(digestSize ∥ message, 64);
   Subsequent blocks are generated from previous blocks
   for i ← 2 to r do
      Vi ← Blake2b(Vi-1, 64)
   Generate the final (possibly partial) block
   partialBytesNeeded ← digestSize – 32*r;
   Vr+1 ← Blake2b(Vr, partialBytesNeeded)

   Concatenate the first 32-bytes of each block Vi
   (except the possibly partial last block, which we take the whole thing)
   Let Ai represent the lower 32-bytes of block Vi
   return A1 ∥ A2 ∥ ... ∥ Ar ∥ Vr+1

Note[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]