Utente:Paolo*torino/Mausoleo di Alicarnasso

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Coordinate: 37°02′16″N 27°25′27″E / 37.037778°N 27.424167°E37.037778; 27.424167

Mausoleo di Alicarnasso
Μαυσωλείο της Αλικαρνασσού (in greco)

آرامگاه هالیکارناسوس (in persiano)

Halikarnas Mozolesi (in turco)
The ruins of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.jpg
Le rovine del Mausoleo di Alicarnasso.
CiviltàAntica Grecia
Utilizzotomba
StileArchitettura greca classica
EpocaGrecia classica
Localizzazione
StatoTurchia Turchia
DistrettoBodrum
Dimensioni
Altezza140 piedi secondo Plinio il Vecchio (ca. 41,50 metri)
Modello in scala di una ricostruzione ipotetica del Mausoleo presso il Miniatürk di Istanbul

Il mausoleo di Alicarnasso era la monumentale tomba che la Satrapa di Caria Artemisia fece costruire in memoria del marito, nonché fratello, Mausolo ad Alicarnasso (l'attuale Bodrum, in Turchia) tra il 353 a.C. e il 350 a.C.[1].

Considerata una delle sette meraviglie del mondo antico, fu costruito da Pitide (o Pìteo; gr. Πῦϑις o Πύϑεος, lat. Pythis o Pytheus) e vi lavorarono artisti come Briasside, Leochares, Timoteo e Skopas (quest'ultimo, di Paros).

Fu distrutto da successivi terremoti tra il XII e il XV secolo[2][3][4]; oggi sono visibili solo alcune rovine.

Plinio il Vecchio, nella sua Naturalis Historia, ci ha lasciato una descrizione delle dimensioni dell'edificio:

«… i lati sud e nord hanno una lunghezza di 63 piedi (ca. 18,67 metri); sulle fronti è più corto. Il perimetro completo è di 440 piedi (ca. 130,41 metri); in altezza arriva a 25 cubiti (ca. 11,10 metri) ed è circondato da 36 colonne; il perimetro del colonnato è chiamato pteron […]. Skopas scolpì il lato est, Bryaxis il lato nord, Timotheos (Timoteo) il lato sud e Leochares quello ovest ma, prima che completassero l'opera, la regina morì. Essi non lasciarono il lavoro comunque, finché non fu completato, decisero che sarebbe stato un monumento sia per la loro gloria sia per quella della loro arte ed anche oggi essi competono gli uni con gli altri. Vi lavorò anche un quinto artista. Sullo pteron si innalza una piramide alta quanto la parte bassa dell'edificio che ha 24 scalini e si assottiglia progressivamente fino alla punta: in cima c'è una quadriga di marmo scolpita da Piti. Se si comprende anche questo l'insieme raggiunge l'altezza di 140 piedi (ca. 41,50 metri)...»

(Plinio il Vecchio)

Alcuni resti del Mausoleo, soprattutto i resti di alcuni cavalli e di una quadriga che vi era alla sua sommità, sono conservati e visibili al British Museum di Londra, dove vi è anche un'impressionante spiegazione delle proporzioni dell'opera, partendo dalle dimensioni (già di per sé notevoli) dei resti dei cavalli lì esposti.

Tali erano la magnificenza e l'imponenza della tomba di Mausolo che il termine mausoleo venne poi usato, in varie lingue, per indicare tutte le grandi tombe monumentali.

Contesto storico[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Nel IV secolo a.C. la città di Alicarnasso, antica polis dorica (originariamente colonia di Trezene) e città natale di Erodoto, fu eletta - nell'ambito dell'Impero achemenide - a capitale della Caria, in Asia Minore,dal re e satrapo Mausolo. Mausolo governò la regione per 24 anni dal 377 al 353 a.C. e in tale periodo estese il suo territorio fino alla costa sud-occidentale dell'Anatolia. Alla sua morte gli succedettero prima la sorella e moglie Artemisia (fino al 350 a.C.), poi il fratello Idrieo (fino alla sua morte nel 344) e successivamente dalla sorella Ada. Ada perse il controllo della Caria nel 340 a.C. ad opera dell'altro fratello Pissodaro che morì nel 335 e a cui succedette il fratellastro Orontobate, nominato satrapo dal re di Persia Dario III.

Tuttavia quando Alessandro Magno giunse in Caria, nel 334 a.C., Ada, che cedette al conquistatore macedone la fortezza di Alinda che controllava, ottenne da Alessandro il governo della Caria, compresa Alicarnasso da lui espugnata; lei, in cambio, lo adottò formalmente come figlio, assicurandogli l'automatica successione al suo decesso.

Costruzione del mausoleo[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Mausolo, quando scelse Alicarnasso come sua capitale, si impegno molto per aumentare il prestigio della città e abbellirla commissionando varie statue, templi ed edifici in marmo.

Quando nel 353 a.C., Mausolo morì, Artemisia decise pertanto di costruire una tomba capace di rendere immortale la memoria del marito senza badare a spese. A tal fine inviò messaggeri nelle varie città greche per ingaggiare i più talentuosi artisti del tempo. Tra questi, l'architetto Pitide, lo scultore e architettoScopas (che aveva curato la ricostruzione del Tempio di Artemide ad Efeso), i celebri scultori Leocare, Briasside, Prassitele, e Timoteo, oltre a centinaia di altri artigiani.

Seppur Artemisia visse per soli due anni dopo la morte del marito e non potè pertanto completare l'opera, secondo lo storico Plinio il Vecchio, gli artigiani decisero di finire il lavoro anche dopo il decesso della sovrana "considerando che era al tempo stesso un memoriale della fama di Mausolo e dell'arte dello scultore."

La tomba è stata eretta su una collina che domina la città. L'intera struttura è seduto in un cortile privato. Al centro del cortile c'era una piattaforma pietra su cui tomba sat. Una scalinata fiancheggiata da leoni di pietra ha portato in cima alla piattaforma, che portava lungo le sue pareti esterne molte statue di dei e dee. Ad ogni angolo, i guerrieri di pietra montati a cavallo custoditi tomba. Al centro della piattaforma, la tomba di marmo rosa come un blocco assottiglia piazza per un terzo del Mausoleo di 45 m (Errore nell'espressione: operando mancante al *) altezza. Questa sezione è stata ricoperta di bassorilievi con scene d'azione, tra cui la battaglia dei centauri con i Lapiti e Greci in combattimento con le amazzoni, una razza di donne guerriere.

Sulla parte superiore di questa sezione della tomba trentasei colonne sottili, dieci per lato, con ogni angolo condividono una colonna tra due lati; aumentato a un altro terzo dell'altezza. In piedi tra ogni [coppia di] colonna [s] era una statua. Dietro le colonne è stato un blocco solido cella-like che portava il peso della massiccia tetto della tomba. Il tetto, che comprendeva la maggior parte della terza finale dell'altezza, era piramidale. Arroccato sulla cima era una quadriga: quattro cavalli che tirano un carro di massa in cui ha guidato le immagini di Mausolo e Artemisia.

History[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

File:Camera Pictures 032.jpg
This lion is among the few free-standing sculptures from the Mausoleum at the British Museum.
Colossal statue of a man from the north side of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

Modern historians have pointed out that two years would not be enough time to decorate and build such an extravagant building. Therefore, it is believed that construction was begun by Mausolus before his death or continued by the next leaders.[5] The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus resembled a temple and the only way to tell the difference was its slightly higher outer walls. The Mausoleum was in the Greek-dominated area of Halicarnassus, which in 353 was controlled by the Persian Empire. According to the Roman architect Vitruvius, it was built by Satyros and Pytheus who wrote a treatise about it; this treatise is now lost.[5] Pausanias adds that the Romans considered the Mausoleum one of the great wonders of the world and it was for that reason that they called all their magnificent tombs mausolea, after it.[6]

It is unknown exactly when and how the Mausoleum came to ruin: Eustathius, writing in the 12th century on his commentary of the Iliad says "it was and is a wonder". Because of this, Fergusson concluded that the building was ruined, probably by an earthquake, between this period and 1402, when the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem arrived and recorded that it was in ruins.[6] However, Luttrell notes[7] that at that time the local Greek and Turks had no name for – or legends to account for – the colossal ruins, suggesting a destruction at a much earlier period.

Many of the stones from the ruins were used by the knights to fortify their castle at Bodrum; they also recovered bas-reliefs with which they decorated the new building. Much of the marble was burned into lime. In 1846 Lord Stratford de Redcliffe obtained permission to remove these reliefs from the Bodrum.[8]

At the original site, all that remained by the 19th century were the foundations and some broken sculptures. This site was originally indicated by Professor Donaldson and was discovered definitively by Charles Newton, after which an expedition was sent by the British government. The expedition lasted 3 years and ended in the sending of the remaining marbles.[9] At some point before or after this, grave robbers broke into and destroyed the underground burial chamber, but in 1972 there was still enough of it remaining to determine a layout of the chambers when they were excavated.[5]

This monument was ranked the seventh wonder of the world by the ancients, not because of its size or strength but because of the beauty of its design and how it was decorated with sculpture or ornaments.[10] The mausoleum was Halicarnassus' principal architectural monument, standing in a dominant position on rising ground above the harbor."[11]

Dimensions and statues[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

A fragmentary horse from a colossal four-horse chariot group which topped the podium of the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

Much of the information we have gathered about the Mausoleum and its structure has come from the Roman polymath Pliny the Elder. He wrote some basic facts about the architecture and some dimensions. The building was rectangular, not square, surrounded by a colonnade of thirty-six columns. There was a pyramidal superstructure receding in twenty four steps to the summit. On top there were 4 horse chariots of marble. The building was accented with both sculptural friezes and free standing figures. "The free standing figures were arranged on 5 or 6 different levels."[5] We are now able to justify that Pliny’s knowledge came from a work written by the architect. It is clear that Pliny did not grasp the design of the mausoleum fully which creates problems in recreating the structure. He does state many facts which help the reader recreate pieces of the puzzle. Other writings by Pausanias, Strabo, and Vitruvius also help us to gather more information about the Mausoleum.[12]

According to Pliny, the mausoleum was 63 ft. north and south, shorter on other fronts, 411 ft. circumference, and 25 cubits (37 ft. 6 in.) in height. It was surrounded by 36 columns. They called this part the pteron. Above the pteron there was a pyramid on top with 24 steps and equal in height to the lower part. The height of the building was 140 ft.[13] The only other author that gives the dimensions of the Mausoleum is Hyginus a grammarian in the time of Augustus. He describes the monument as built with shining stones, 80 ft high and 1340 ft in circumference. He likely meant cubits which would match Pliny’s dimensions exactly but this text is largely considered corrupt and is of little importance.[12] We learn from Vitruvius that Satyrus and Phytheus wrote a description of their work which Pliny likely read. Pliny likely wrote down these dimensions without thinking about the form of the building.[12]

A number of statues were found slightly larger than life size, either 5 ft. 0 in. or 5 ft. 3 in. in length; these were 20 lion statues. Another important find was the depth on the rock on which the building stood. This rock was excavated to 8 or 9 ft. deep over an area 107 by 127 ft.[14] The sculptures on the north were created by Scopas, the ones on the east Bryaxis, on the south Timotheus and on the west Leochares.[12] The Mausoleum was adorned with many great and beautiful sculptures. Some of these sculptures have been lost or only fragments have been found. Several of the statues' original placements are only known through historical accounts. The great figures of Mausolus and Artemisia stood in the chariot at the top of the pyramid. The detached equestrian groups are placed at the corners of the sub podium.[12] The semi-colossal female heads they may have belonged to the acroteria of the two gables which may have represented the six Carian towns incorporated in Halicarnassus.[15] Work still continues today as groups continue to excavate and research the mausoleum’s art.

Later history of the Mausoleum[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

The Mausoleum overlooked the city of Halicarnassus for many years. It was untouched when the city fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BC and still undamaged after attacks by pirates in 62 and 58 BC. It stood above the city's ruins for sixteen centuries. Then a series of earthquakes shattered the columns and sent the bronze chariot crashing to the ground. By 1404 AD only the very base of the Mausoleum was still recognizable.

Bodrum Castle
The Castle from the south-east

The Knights of St John of Rhodes invaded the region and built Bodrum Castle (Castle of Saint Peter). When they decided to fortify it in 1494, they used the stones of the Mausoleum. In 1522 rumors of a Turkish invasion caused the Crusaders to strengthen the castle at Halicarnassus (which was by then known as Bodrum) and much of the remaining portions of the tomb were broken up and used in the castle walls. Sections of polished marble from the tomb can still be seen there today. Suleiman the Magnificent conquered the base of the knights on the island of Rhodes, who then relocated first briefly to Sicily and later permanently to Malta, leaving the Castle and Bodrum to the Ottoman Empire.

During the fortification work, a party of knights entered the base of the monument and discovered the room containing a great coffin. In many histories of the Mausoleum one can find the following story of what happened: the party, deciding it was too late to open it that day, returned the next morning to find the tomb, and any treasure it may have contained, plundered. The bodies of Mausolus and Artemisia were missing too. The small museum building next to the site of the Mausoleum tells the story. Research done by archeologists in the 1960s shows that long before the knights came, grave robbers had dug a tunnel under the grave chamber, stealing its contents. Also the museum states that it is most likely that Mausolus and Artemisia were cremated, so only an urn with their ashes was placed in the grave chamber. This explains why no bodies were found.

Before grinding and burning much of the remaining sculpture of the Mausoleum into lime for plaster, the Knights removed several of the best works and mounted them in the Bodrum castle. There they stayed for three centuries.

Discovery and excavation[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

In the 19th century a British consul obtained several of the statues from Bodrum Castle; these now reside in the British Museum. In 1852 the British Museum sent the archaeologist Charles Thomas Newton to search for more remains of the Mausoleum. He had a difficult job. He didn't know the exact location of the tomb, and the cost of buying up all the small parcels of land in the area to look for it would have been astronomical. Instead Newton studied the accounts of ancient writers like Pliny to obtain the approximate size and location of the memorial, then bought a plot of land in the most likely location. Digging down, Newton explored the surrounding area through tunnels he dug under the surrounding plots. He was able to locate some walls, a staircase, and finally three of the corners of the foundation. With this knowledge, Newton was able to determine which plots of land he needed to buy.

Newton then excavated the site and found sections of the reliefs that decorated the wall of the building and portions of the stepped roof. Also discovered was a broken stone chariot wheel some 2 m (6 ft 7 in) in diameter, which came from the sculpture on the Mausoleum's roof. Finally, he found the statues of Mausolus and Artemisia that had stood at the pinnacle of the building. In October 1857 Newton carried blocks of marble from this site by the HMS Supply and landed them in Malta. These blocks were used for the construction of a new dock in Malta for the Royal Navy. Today this dock is known at Dock No. 1 in Cospicua, but the building blocks are hidden from view, submerged in Dockyard Creek in the Grand Harbour.[16]

From 1966 to 1977, the Mausoleum was thoroughly researched by Prof. Kristian Jeppesen of Aarhus University, Denmark. He has produced a six-volume monograph, The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos.

The beauty of the Mausoleum was not only in the structure itself, but in the decorations and statues that adorned the outside at different levels on the podium and the roof: statues of people, lions, horses, and other animals in varying scales. The four Greek sculptors who carved the statues: Bryaxis, Leochares, Scopas and Timotheus were each responsible for one side. Because the statues were of people and animals, the Mausoleum holds a special place in history, as it was not dedicated to the gods of Ancient Greece.

Today, the massive castle of the Knights of Malta still stands in Bodrum, and the polished stone and marble blocks of the Mausoleum can be spotted built into the walls of the structure. At the site of the Mausoleum, only the foundation remains, and a small museum. Some of the surviving sculptures at the British Museum include fragments of statues and many slabs of the frieze showing the battle between the Greeks and the Amazons. There the images of Mausolus and his queen watch over the few broken remains of the beautiful tomb she built for him.

Influence on modern architecture[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Modern buildings whose designs were based upon or influenced by interpretations of the design of the Mausoleum of Mausolus include the Civil Courts Building in St. Louis, the National Newark Building in Newark, New Jersey, Grant's Tomb and 26 Broadway in New York City, Los Angeles City Hall, the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, Australia, the spire of St. George's Church, Bloomsbury in London, the Indiana War Memorial (and in turn Chase Tower) in Indianapolis,[17][18]Template:Failed verification the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rite Southern Jurisdiction's headquarters, the House of the Temple in Washington D.C., and the Soldiers and Sailors Memorial in Pittsburgh.[19]

Notes[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Template:Notelist

References[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  1. ^ Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2010, p.89-90, ISBN 978-2-35035-279-4.
  2. ^ Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, su ancienthistory.about.com. URL consultato il 5 February 2014.
  3. ^ The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, su unmuseum.org. URL consultato il 5 February 2014.
  4. ^ The Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, su bodrumpages.com. URL consultato il 5 February 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d Colvin, Howard (1991). "Architecture and the after-life." Yale University, pp 30–31. New Haven Press.
  6. ^ a b Fergusson, James (1862). "The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored in conformity with the recently discovered remains." J. Murray, p10. London
  7. ^ A. Luttrell, The later history of the Maussolleion and its utilization in the Hospitaller castle at Bodrum. In Kristian Jeppesen, et al. The Maussolleion at Halikarnassos. 1986.
  8. ^ Fergusson, James (1862). "The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored in conformity with the recently discovered remains." J. Murray, p6. London
  9. ^ "The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored in conformity with the recently discovered remains." J. Murray, p7. London
  10. ^ "The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored in conformity with the recently discovered remains." J. Murray, p5. London
  11. ^ "Architecture and the after-life." Yale University, pp3 0–31. New Haven Press.
  12. ^ a b c d e Fergusson, James (1862). "The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored in conformity with the recently discovered remains." J. Murray, London
  13. ^ Fergusson, James (1862). "The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored in conformity with the recently discovered remains." J. Murray, p9. London
  14. ^ Fergusson, James (1862). "The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored in conformity with the recently discovered remains." J. Murray, p.9 London
  15. ^ "[A guide to the] mausoleum room." (1886). the trustees, London England
  16. ^ Dock 1 made from ancient ruins?, in Times of Malta, 26 July 2009. URL consultato il 15 March 2015.
  17. ^ Indiana War Memorial Exterior, State of Indiana. URL consultato il 21 dicembre 2010 (archiviato dall'url originale il 13 ottobre 2007).
  18. ^ IWM: Indiana War Memorial Museum, in in.gov.
  19. ^ Christine H. O'Toole, The Long Weekend: Pittsburgh, Three Ways, Washington Post, September 20, 2009.

Further reading[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

External links[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Template:Seven Wonders of the Ancient World


Mausoleo di Alicarnasso (ricostruzione ipotetica, XVI secolo)
Le attuali rovine del mausoleo

Il mausoleo di Alicarnasso è la monumentale tomba che Artemisia fece costruire per il marito, nonché fratello, Mausolo, Satrapo della Caria, ad Alicarnasso (l'attuale Bodrum, in Turchia) dal 353 a.C. al 350 a.C.[1]. Era una delle sette meraviglie del mondo antico, fu costruito da Pitide (o Pìteo; gr. Πῦϑις o Πύϑεος, lat. Pythis o Pytheus) e vi lavorarono artisti come Briasside, Leochares, Timoteo e Skopas (quest'ultimo, di Paros). Fu distrutto da un terremoto, e oggi sono visibili solo alcune rovine.

Plinio il Vecchio, nella sua Naturalis Historia, ci ha lasciato una descrizione delle dimensioni dell'edificio:

«… i lati sud e nord hanno una lunghezza di 63 piedi (ca. 18,67 metri); sulle fronti è più corto. Il perimetro completo è di 440 piedi (ca. 130,41 metri); in altezza arriva a 25 cubiti (ca. 11,10 metri) ed è circondato da 36 colonne; il perimetro del colonnato è chiamato pteron […]. Skopas scolpì il lato est, Bryaxis il lato nord, Timotheos (Timoteo) il lato sud e Leochares quello ovest ma, prima che completassero l'opera, la regina morì. Essi non lasciarono il lavoro comunque, finché non fu completato, decisero che sarebbe stato un monumento sia per la loro gloria sia per quella della loro arte ed anche oggi essi competono gli uni con gli altri. Vi lavorò anche un quinto artista. Sullo pteron si innalza una piramide alta quanto la parte bassa dell'edificio che ha 24 scalini e si assottiglia progressivamente fino alla punta: in cima c'è una quadriga di marmo scolpita da Piti. Se si comprende anche questo l'insieme raggiunge l'altezza di 140 piedi (ca. 41,50 metri)...»

(Plinio il Vecchio)
Il disegno dello Shrine of Remembrance a Melbourne è stato ispirato da quello del mausoleo

Tali erano la magnificenza e l'imponenza della tomba di Mausolo che il termine mausoleo venne poi usato per indicare tutte le grandi tombe monumentali.

Alcuni resti del Mausoleo, soprattutto i resti dei cavalli e della quadriga che vi era alla sua sommità, sono conservati e visibili al British Museum di Londra, dove vi è anche un'impressionante spiegazione delle proporzioni dell'opera, partendo dalle dimensioni (già di per sé notevoli) dei resti dei cavalli lì esposti.

Nella figura a destra viene citata la struttura dello Shrine of Remembrance, che è ispirata al mausoleo di Alicarnasso. Oltre a questa struttura ne esiste anche un'altra, ispirata a questo mausoleo, che è The House of the Temple situata al civico 1733 di Sixteenth Street NW a Washington.

Note[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  1. ^ Bodream, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme Ed., 2010, p.89-90, ISBN 978-2-35035-279-4.

Altri progetti[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

[[Categoria:Sette meraviglie del mondo]] [[Categoria:Mausolei|A]] [[Categoria:Architetture scomparse della Turchia]]