Differenze tra le versioni di "Downtown Eastside"

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Nel 1942, tutta la popolazione di origine [[giappone]]se (fra le 8000 e le 10000 persone) fu deportata in seguito alle misure restrittive messe in atto dal governo dopo l'ingresso del Canada nella [[Seconda guerra mondiale]]. Dopo la guerra, solo pochi di questi tornarono a stabilirsi a Japantown. Dopo la fine della guerra, il centro della città continuò a spostarsi verso ovest, soprattutto dopo la chiusura della [[British Columbia Electric Railway]], una linea tramviaria interurbana che aveva il proprio capolinea ad Hastings.<ref>[http://www.nationalpost.com/m/related/Carrall+Street+Home+some+Vancouver+coolest+bars+stone+throw+away+from/2207786/story.html]</ref> I teatri e gli esercizi commerciali si spostarono verso [[Granville Street]] e [[Robson Street]], il turismo diminuì, gli alberghi chiusero o si trasformarono in abitazioni a basso costo. Già nel 1965 l'area era principalmente nota per la prostituzione e l'alta percentuale di poveri senza famiglia, alcolizzati, e disabili.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 1">Campbell (2009), cap. 1</ref>
 
{{quote|Quando abbiamo chiuso gli istituti, avevamo promesso <nowiki>[</nowiki>a proposito dei malati di mente<nowiki>]</nowiki> che li avremmo inseriti nella comunità e gli avremmo dato l'aiuto di cui avevano bisogno. Ma abbiamo mentito. Penso che sia una delle cose peggiori che abbiamo mai fatto|Senatore [[Larry Campbell]], ex sindaco di Vancouver}}
 
A metà degli anni '80 la geografia e la demografia di Vancouver subirono diverse trasformazioni a causa della celebrazione dell'[[Expo 1986]]. Fra gli 800 e i 1000 inquilini di residence popolari furono sfrattati per far spazio ai turisti.<ref>[http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/expo-86-evictions-remembered-1.3566844 Expo 86 evictions: remembering the fair's dark side]</ref>
 
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In the early 1980s, the DTES was an edgy but still relatively calm place to live. The neighbourhood began a marked shift before [[Expo 86]], when an estimated 800 to 1,000 tenants were evicted from DTES residential hotels to make room for tourists.<ref name="Baker2016">{{cite news|last1=Baker|first1=Rafferty|title=Expo 86 evictions: remembering the fair's dark side|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/expo-86-evictions-remembered-1.3566844|accessdate=9 May 2016|work=CBC News|place=Toronto |date=4 May 2016}}</ref> With Expo 86 also came an influx of high-purity [[cocaine]] and [[heroin]].<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 3">Campbell 2009, chapter 3</ref> In efforts to clean up other areas of the city, police cracked down on the cocaine market and street prostitution, but these activities resurfaced in the DTES.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 3"/><ref>Campbell 2009, chapter 10</ref> Within the DTES, police officers gave up on arresting the huge numbers of individual drug users, and chose to focus their efforts on dealers instead.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 13">Campbell 2009, chapter 13</ref>
===1980s===
[[File:CarnegieCtr.jpg|thumb|left|alt=refer to caption|[[Carnegie Community Centre]] at the corner of Main and Hastings.]]
{{Reduced pull quote |right |When we deinstitutionalized, we promised [mentally ill] people that we would put them into the community and give them the support they needed. But we lied. I think it's one of the worst things we ever did.|Senator [[Larry Campbell]], former mayor of Vancouver|<ref name ="Campbell 2009, chapter 6"/>}}
In the early 1980s, the DTES was an edgy but still relatively calm place to live. The neighbourhood began a marked shift before [[Expo 86]], when an estimated 800 to 1,000 tenants were evicted from DTES residential hotels to make room for tourists.<ref name="Baker2016">{{cite news|last1=Baker|first1=Rafferty|title=Expo 86 evictions: remembering the fair's dark side|url=http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/expo-86-evictions-remembered-1.3566844|accessdate=9 May 2016|work=CBC News|place=Toronto |date=4 May 2016}}</ref> With Expo 86 also came an influx of high-purity [[cocaine]] and [[heroin]].<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 3">Campbell 2009, chapter 3</ref> In efforts to clean up other areas of the city, police cracked down on the cocaine market and street prostitution, but these activities resurfaced in the DTES.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 3"/><ref>Campbell 2009, chapter 10</ref> Within the DTES, police officers gave up on arresting the huge numbers of individual drug users, and chose to focus their efforts on dealers instead.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 13">Campbell 2009, chapter 13</ref>
 
Meanwhile, the provincial government adopted a policy of [[de-institutionalization]] of the mentally ill, leading to the mass discharge of [[Riverview Hospital (Coquitlam)|Riverview Hospital]]'s patients with the promise that they would be integrated into the community.<ref name ="Campbell 2009, chapter 6"/> Between 1985 and 1999, the number of patient-days of care provided by B.C. psychiatric hospitals declined by nearly 65%.<ref name="Campbell 2009, chapter 6">Campbell 2009, chapter 6</ref> Many of the de-institutionalized mentally ill moved to the DTES, attracted by the accepting culture and low-cost housing, but floundered without adequate treatment and support and soon became addicted to the neighbourhoods's readily-available drugs.<ref>Campbell 2009, page 157</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Patterson | first1 = Michelle | title = The Faces of Homelessness Across BC | journal = Visions | volume = 4 | issue = 1 | pages = 7–8 | publisher = BC Partners for Mental Health and Addictions Information | location = Vancouver | date = Summer 2007 | url = http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/sites/default/files/visions_housing_homelessness.pdf}}</ref>

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