Betsy Jolas

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Betsy Jolas nel 2006

Betsy Jolas (Parigi, 5 agosto 1926) è una compositrice francese naturalizzata statunitense. I suoi genitori sono lo scrittore americano Eugene Jolas e la traduttrice Maria McDonald.

Biografia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Betsy Jolas nacque a Parigi nel 1926. Sua madre, la traduttrice americana Maria Jolas, era una cantante. Suo padre, il poeta e giornalista Eugene Jolas fondò e curò la rivista Transition,[1] che caratterizzò in dieci anni la maggior parte dei grandi nomi del periodo tra le due guerre. In particolare James Joyce, il cui Finnegans Wake uscì in forma seriale sotto la voce "lavori in corso".

La sua famiglia si stabilì negli Stati Uniti alla fine del 1940. Mentre completava i suoi studi generali a New York, specializzandosi poi in musica al Bennington College, entrò a far parte dei Dessoff Choirs, scoprendo così in particolare la musica rinascimentale che avrebbe avuto un'influenza duratura sul suo lavoro.[2]

Tornata a Parigi nel 1946, la Jolas riprese i suoi studi al Conservatoire National Supérieur de musique, in particolare con Darius Milhaud e Olivier Messiaen.[2] Dal 1971 al 1974 fu assistente di Olivier Messiaen al Conservatorio e nel 1975 fu designata per la facoltà. Insegnò poi negli Stati Uniti, a Yale, Harvard, al Mills College (presidente D. Milhaud), all'Università dei campus della California a Berkeley, Los Angeles e San Diego, a Tanglewood e all'Università del Michigan.[3]

La Jolas è membro dell'American Academy of Arts and Letters (1983) e dell'American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1995).

Le sue numerose opere, che continuò a comporre dal 1945, furono scritte per una grande varietà di combinazioni e sono state ampiamente eseguite a livello internazionale da artisti come Kent Nagano, Anssi Karttünen, Claude Delangle, William Christie, Håkan Hardenberger, Antoine Tamestit e Sir Simon Rattle e per gruppi e orchestre di spicco tra i quali: l'Ensemble Intercontemporain, la Berlin Philharmonic, l'Orchestre de Paris, i musicisti della Boston Symphony Chamber e la BBC Symphony.

Stile[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Per il suo background di famiglia, la Jolas fu messa a confronto fin dalla più tenera età con le parole e la voce cantata e questo potrebbe averla protetta da alcuni eccessi musicali del mondo della musica del dopoguerra. Tra i primi seguaci del Domaine Musical di Pierre Boulez negli anni '60, era sempre più una "compagna di viaggio" che un discepolo incondizionato. La sua musica sembra chiaramente contemporanea, se non altro per essere coerentemente atonale. Tuttavia, a differenza della maggior parte dei compositori della sua generazione, la Jolas non ha mai incoraggiato una rottura con il passato e la sua acuta conoscenza della tradizione viene spesso sentita come importante nell'aver influenzato la sua spinta creativa. Ha infatti ammesso apertamente molte volte la sua ambizione di scrivere musica espressiva e bella quando tali considerazioni erano ritenute obsolete.

Lista delle opere[4][5][6][modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Opera and stage works[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Le Pavillon au Bord de la Rivière (1975), chamber opera in 4 acts
  • Schliemann (1982-83), opera in 3 acts
  • Le Cyclope (1986), chamber opera in 1 act
  • Ajax (1960), incidental music for the play by Sophocles
  • Les troyennes (1961), incidental music for the play by Euripides
  • La dernière existence au camp de Tatenberg, incidental music for the play by Armand Gatti

Orchestra[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • D'un opéra de voyage (1967) for chamber orchestra
  • Quatre Plages (1967) for string orchestra
  • Well Met (1973) for string orchestra
  • Tales of a summer sea (1977) for orchestra
  • Cinq pièces pour Boulogne (1982) (2 versions)
  • Well Met 04 - Pantomime for 12 strings (2004)
  • B Day (2006) for symphony orchestra
  • Just a Minute (2007)
  • A Little Summer Suite (2015)
  • Well Met Suite (2016)

Solo works with orchestra or ensemble[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Points D'Aube (1968) for viola and ensemble
  • Musique d'hiver (1971) for organ and small orchestra
  • États (1967) for violin and 6 percussionists
  • Trois Rencontres (1973) for solo string trio and symphony orchestra
  • How-Now (1973) for 8 instruments
  • Onze Lieder (1977) for trumpet and chamber orchestra
  • Stances (1978) for piano and orchestra
  • Points d'or for saxophonist (playing soprano, alto, tenor, baritone) and 15 instruments1982)
  • Frauenleben (1992) for viola and orchestra
  • Lumor, 7 Lieder spirituels for a saxophonist (playing soprano and tenor) and orchestra (1996)
  • Petite symphonie concertante (1997) for conducting violin and orchestra
  • Wanderlied (2003) for cello and 15 instruments
  • Histoires Vraies (2015) for trumpet and orchestra
  • Side Roads (2017) for cello and strings

Works for large ensemble[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Figures (1965) for 9 instruments
  • J.D.E. (1966) for 14 musicians
  • D'un opéra de poupée en sept musiques (1982) for 11 instruments
  • Préludes, Fanfares, Interludes, Sonneries (1983) for wind band
  • Sonate à 8 (1998) for cello octet

Chamber music[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Sonate à Trois (1956) for recorder, viola da gamba and harpsichord
  • Quartet No.1 (1956)
  • Quartet No.3, 9 études for string quartet (1977)
  • O Wall (1976) for wind quintet
  • Trio (1988) for piano trio
  • Quartet No.4 - Menus Propos (1989) for string quartet
  • Trio "Les Heures" (1991) for string trio
  • Musique pour Xavier (1993) for clarinet, tenor saxophone and violin
  • Quartet No.5 (1994) for string quartet
  • Music for here (1994) for solo bassoon with accompaniment of viola and cello
  • Quartet No.6 (1997) for clarinet and string trio
  • Petite sonnerie de juin (1997) for horn, trumpet and trombone
  • Trio sopra et sola facta (1999-2000) for violin, clarinet and piano
  • Titivillus (2000) for mezzo-soprano, flute and piano or 2 flutes and piano
  • Ah! Haydn (2007) for piano trio
  • Quatuor VII (Afterthoughts) (2018) for trumpet, violin, viola and cello

Duos[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Trifolium (1947) for flute and piano
  • Remember (1971) for cor anglais (or viola) and cello
  • Four Duos (1978) for viola and piano
  • Trois études campanaires (1980) for carillon and keyboard
  • Quatre pièces en marge (1983) for cello and piano
  • Three Duos (1983) for tuba and piano
  • Music for Joan (1988) for vibraphone and piano
  • Petites musiques de chevet (1989) for clarinet and piano
  • E.A petite suite variée (1991) for trumpet in C and vibraphone
  • Études aperçues (1992) for vibraphone and 5 cow bells
  • Musique pour Delphine (1992) for violin and cello
  • Quoth the raven, 3 pieces for clarinet and piano (1993)
  • Frauenleben (1994) for viola and piano
  • Music to go (1995) for violin and cello
  • Come follow (2001) for bassoon and viola
  • Lovemusic (2005) for flute and bass clarinet
  • Suite: Puer apud magistros exercentur (2007) for 2 alto saxophones
  • Allô! for 2 saxophones
  • Oh là! for 2 saxophones
  • Scat for 2 saxophones
  • Ardente for viola and piano
  • Femme le soir (2018) for cello and piano

Solo works[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Episode No.1 (1964) for flute
  • Fusain (1971) for bass flute and piccolo
  • Chanson d'approche (1972) for piano
  • Autour (1972) for harpsichord
  • B for Sonata (1973) for piano
  • Scion (1973) for cello
  • Tranche (1976) for harp
  • Musique de jour (1976) for organ
  • Episode No.2 "ohne Wörte" (1977) for flute
  • Auprès (1980) for harpsichord
  • Pièce pour Saint Germain (1981) for piano
  • Calling E.C. (1982) for piano or two pianos
  • Episode No.3 (1982) for trumpet in C
  • Episode No.4 (1983) for tenor saxophone
  • Petite suite sérieuse pour concert de famille (1983) for piano
  • Episode No.5 (1983) for cello
  • Episode No.6 (1984) for viola
  • Episode No.7 "night away" (1984) for electric guitar
  • Episode No.8 (1984) for double bass
  • Tango Si (1984) for piano
  • Une journee de Gadad, children's suite for piano (1984)
  • Signets, hommage à Maurice Ravel (1987) for piano
  • Episode No.9 "Forte magnum colaraturum" (1990) for clarinet
  • Pièce pour piano (1997)
  • Petite Fantaisie for Leo (2001) for flute
  • Pièces jay (2001) for piano
  • O Bach! (2007) for piano
  • Leçons du petit jour (2007) for organ

Chorus[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Mass (1945) for choir, soloists and orchestra
  • Motet I - To everything, there is a season (1947) for 7 women's voices
  • Madrigal (1948) for choir
  • Arbres (1950) for mixed choir a cappella
  • Et le reste à l'avenant (1950) for mixed choir a cappella
  • Everyone sings (1955) for double women's choir féminin et brass
  • Enfantillages (1956) for women's or children's choir in 3 equal voices
  • L'oeil égaré dans les plis de l'obéissance au vent, cantate radiophonique (1961) for soprano, contralto, baritone, mixed choir and orchestra
  • Dans la chaleur vacante, cantate radiophonique (1963) for choir and orchestra
  • Mots (1963) for vocal quintet and ensemble
  • Motet II (1965) for chorus and ensemble
  • Diurnes (1970) for mixed chorus of 12 to 72 voices
  • Sonata for 12 mixed voices a cappella (1970)
  • Perriault le déluné, comédie-madrigal for mixed choir of 3 times 4 voices a cappella (1993)
  • Für Celia affettuoso (1998) for choir in 6 voices
  • Motet III "Hunc igitur terrorem" (1999) for 5 solo voices, choir and Baroque orchestra
  • Enfantillages (2000) new version with flute and women's or children's choir
  • Autres enfantillages (2000) for children's or women's choir with clarinet ad libitum
  • Chant dormant (2001) for choir
  • Concerto-Fantaisie "O night, oh" (2001) - for mixed choir of 32 voices and concertante piano
  • Motet IV "Ventosum Vocant" (2002) for soprano and quintet
  • Femme en son jardin (2010) for vocal quartet, viola, cello and piano
  • Orça for choir a cappella
  • Savez-Vous Qui Est Mon Ami for chorus of three mixed voices

Vocal[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Plupart du temps I, 6 melodies for mezzo-soprano and piano (1949)
  • Chansons pour Paule (1951) for mezzo-soprano and piano
  • Cinq poèmes de Jacques Dupin (1959) for soprano et piano or orchestra
  • Mots (1963) for soprano and ensemble
  • Quartet No.2 (1964) for soprano and string trio
  • Mon Ami (1974) for voice and piano
  • Caprice for one voice (1975) for any male or female voice and piano, without pianist
  • Caprice for two voices (1978) for mezzo-soprano and counter-tenor or contralto
  • Liring Ballade (1980) for baritone and orchestra
  • Plupart du temps II (1989) for tenor, tenor saxophone and cello
  • Sigrancia-Ballade (1995) for baritone and orchestra
  • Lovaby, concert aria from the opera Schliemann (2000) for soprano and orchestra
  • Titivillus (2000) for mezzo-soprano, flute and piano or 2 flutes and piano
  • Motet IV 'Ventosum Vocant' (2002) for soprano, flute, clarinet, harp, violin and cello.
  • L' Ascension du Mont Ventoux (2004) for soprano, narrator, flute, clarinet, violin, cello and harp
  • D'un journal d'amour for soprano and viola (2009)
  • Sur do : Hommage à Purcell pour quatuor vocal, alto et violoncelle (2010)
  • Rambles for narrator/speaker, flute, clarinet, harp, violin and cello
  • L'oeil égaré for baritone and piano
  • Fredons for soprano and ensemble

Reworkings of early music[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 11 for string quartet, double bass, wind quintet, harp and piano or orchestra
  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 20 for wind quintet, string trio, viola, harp or orchestra
  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 47 for flute, clarinet, 2 violins, 2 violas and cello
  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 68 for flute, clarinet, 2 violins, 2 violas and cello
  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 84 for flute, bassoon, piano and string quartet
  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 92 for oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn and string quartet or orchestra
  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 97 for wind quintet, string trio
  • Heinrich Schütz / 8 Psaumes de Becker / No 121 for flute, piano and string quartet or orchestra
  • Lassus Ricercare (1970) for brass, percussion, harp and pianos
  • Orlandus Lassus / 3 Psaumes de Ulenberg
  • Pierluigi Palestrina / Assumpta est Maria motet, for flute, clarinet, harp and string trio
  • Guillaume Dufay / Flos Florum motet for wind quintet
  • Johannes Brasart / O Flos Fragrans motet for wind quintet
  • Josquin des Prés / Suite brève
  • Jean Sébastien Bach / 14 Goldberg canons for flute, oboe, clarinet, string trio and double bass
  • Jean Sébastien Bach - Contrapunctus IV (The Art of Fugue) (2001) for chamber orchestra and vocal quartet

Onorificenze[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Officier de la Légion d'honneur (2006)
  • Prix de l'Académie Charles Cros pour l'ensemble de son œuvre (2015)
  • Officier de l'Ordre du Mérite (2003)
  • Berlin Prize (2000)
  • Commandeur des Arts et des Lettres (1985)
  • Prix International Maurice Ravel (1992)
  • Grand prix de la SACEM(1982)
  • Grand Prix de la Ville de Paris (1981)
  • Prix National de la Musique (1974)
  • Koussevitzky Prize (1974)
  • Copley Foundation award (1954)

Note[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  1. ^ Maria Jolas, 94, A translator and Paris Magazine Founder, Edwin McDowell, 7 March 1987, New York Times, Retrieved 2 August 2016
  2. ^ a b Jeremy Thurlow, "Jolas, Betsy," Grove Music Online, accessed 24 July 2017.
  3. ^ "The American Academy in Berlin."
  4. ^ "Resources IRCAM"
  5. ^ "Music Sales"
  6. ^ "Ricordi[collegamento interrotto]"

Bibliografia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • CC1 (V. Perlis)
  • D. Henahan: ‘Betsy Jolas Winning Recognition in the USA’, New York Times (30 Aug 1976)
  • J. Briscoe: ‘Betsy Jolas: Plupart du Temps II’, Contemporary Anthology of Music by Women (Bloomington and Indianapolis, 1997)
  • V. Perlis: ‘Recordings in Review: Betsy Jolas’, Yale Review (1995), 179–85
  • B. Jolas: Molto espressivo (Paris, 1999) [collected writings]
  • B. Serrou : "Betsy Jolas. D'un opéra de voyage". Préface de Henri Dutilleux, Edition Cig'art, 2001.
  • Kennedy, Michael (2006), The Oxford Dictionary of Music, 985 pages, ISBN 0-19-861459-4
  • Thurlow, Jeremy (2001). "Jolas, Betsy". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers.
  • J. Briscoe (2011/2012) "Jolas, Betsy". Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2nd ed. 2012. Oxford Music Online.

Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Controllo di autoritàVIAF (EN24787467 · ISNI (EN0000 0001 0880 2196 · LCCN (ENn80079527 · GND (DE122675401 · BNF (FRcb138957019 (data) · WorldCat Identities (ENn80-079527