Statuto di Westminster 1275

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Lo Statuto di Westminster del 1275 (13 Edward I, St. 1; conosciuto anche come Statuto di Westminster I, come lo Statuto di Westminster del 1285, era uno statuto inglese del re Edoardo I ed è esso stesso un codice che raccoglie le leggi inglesi allora esistenti in 51 Capitoli.

Il Capitolo 5, conosciuto come il Freedom of Election Act 1275, è ancora in vigore nel Regno Unito. William Stubbs dice di esso:[1]

(EN)
« This act is almost a code by itself; it contains fifty-one clauses, and covers the whole ground of legislation. Its language now recalls that of Canute or King Alfred, now anticipates that of our own day; on the one hand common right is to be done to all, as well poor as rich, without respect of persons; on the other, elections are to be free, and no man is by force, malice or menace, to disturb them. The spirit of the Great Charter is not less discernible: excessive amercements, abuses of wardship, irregular demands for feudal aids, are forbidden in the same words or by amending enactments. The inquest system of Henry II of England, the law of wreck, and the institution of coroners, measures of Richard I of England and his ministers, come under review as well as the Provisions of Oxford and the Statute of Marlborough.… »
(IT)
« Questo atto è quasi un codice di per sé, contiene cinquantuno clausole, e copre tutto l'ambito della legislazione. Il suo linguaggio ora ricorda quello di Canuto il grande o Re Alfredo ora anticipa quello dei nostri giorni; da un lato il diritto comune che deve essere rispettato da tutti, così poveri come ricchi, senza avere riguardo delle persone; dall'altro, le elezioni devono essere libero, e nessun uomo con la forza, malizia o minaccia, può disturbarle. Lo spirito della Magna Carta non è meno visibile: pene eccessive, abusi di tutela, richieste irregolari per gli aiuti feudali, sono proibite dalle stesse parole o da decreti che li modificano. Il sistema inquisitorio di Enrico II, la legge sulla demolizione, e la istituzione di medici legali, misure di Riccardo I e i suoi ministri, vengono prese in esame come pure le Disposizioni di Oxford e lo Statuto di Marlborough.… »

Anche se è materia di disputa su quando è stato introdotto tra peine forte et dure (Law French - antico francese giuridico per "punizione dura e forte"), il capitolo 3 afferma che quei criminali che rimangono zitti devono essere messi in prison forte et dure (Law French).[2]

Storia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Era uno dei due Statuti inglesi in gran parte redatti da Robert Burnell e approvati durante il regno di Edoardo I d'Inghilterra. Re Edoardo era tornato dalla nona Crociata il 2 agosto 1274 e fu incoronato re d'Inghilterra il 19 agosto.[3] Il suo primo Parlamento d'Inghilterra è stato convocato per la solenne quindicina della Presentazione di Gesù al Tempio il 16 febbraio 1275 ma fu prorogue fino al giorno successivo la Pasqua, lunedì 22 aprile 1275 e si è riunito al Palazzo di Westminster; il suo principale lavoro era prendere in esame lo Statuto di Westminster I. Questo è stato redatto, non in latino, ma in lingua normanna, e fu approvato "par le assentement des erceveskes, eveskes, abbes, priurs, contes, barons, et la communaute de la tere ileokes somons" (con l'accordo degli arcivescovi, vescovi, abati, priori, conti, baroni, e la comunità della terra e degli assenti non rappresentati)[4].

Capitoli[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Lo Statuto di Westminster I è composto da 51 capitoli:

Capitolo Titolo abbreviato Titolo Note
1 Peace of the Church and the Realm Act 1275 The Peace of the Church and the Realm shall be maintained. Religious Houses shall not be overcharged.
La pace religiosa e nel Regno deve essere mantenuta. Le Case religiose non potranno fare pagare un prezzo troppo alto.
Ancora in vigore in Nuova Zelanda.
2 Benefit of Clergy Act 1275 A Clerk convict of Felony, delivered to the Ordinary, shall not depart without Purgation.
3 Escapes Act 1275 No Penalty for an Escape before it be adjudged.
4 Wreck Act 1275 What shall be adjudged Wreck of the Sea, and what not.
5 Freedom of Election Act 1275 There shall be no Disturbance of the Free Elections.
Non vi dovrà essere alcun disturbo durante le libere elezioni.
Ancora in vigore in Inghilterra e Galles.
6 Amercements Act 1275 Amerciaments shall be reasonable, and according to the Offence.
7 Purveyance Act 1275 In what manner, and of whom, Purveyance shall be made for a Castle.
8 Beaupleader Act 1275 Nothing shall be taken for beaupleader.
9 Pursuit of Felons Act 1275 All Men shall be ready to pursue Felons.
10 Coroners Act 1275 What sort of Men shall be Coroners. Sheriffs shall have Counter-Rolls with them.
11 Inquests of Murder Act 1275 Replevin by the Writ of Odio & Atia. Who shall be triers of Murther.
12 Standing Mute Act 1275 The Punishment of Felons refusing lawful Trial.
13 Rape Act 1275 The Punishment of him that doth ravish a Woman.
14 Principal and Accessory Act 1275 Appeal against the Principle and Accessary.
15 Prisoners and Bail Act 1275 Which Prisoners be mainpernable, and which not. The Penalty for unlawful Bailment.
16 Distress Act 1275 (c.16) None shall distrain out of his Fee, not drive the Distress out of the County.
17 Distress Act 1275 (c.17) The Remedy if the Distress be impounded in a Castle or Fortress.
18 Fines on the County Act 1275 Who shall assess the common Fines of the County.
19 Crown Debts Act 1275 A Sheriff having received the King's Debt, shall discharge the Debtor.
20 Trespassers in Parks and Ponds Act 1275 Offenses committed in Parks and Ponds. Robbing of tame Beasts in a Park.
21 Lands in Ward Act 1275 No Waste shall be made in Wards Lands; nor in Bishops, during the Vacation.
22 Wardship Act 1275 The Penalty of an Heir marrying without Consent of his Guardian. A Woman Ward.
23 Distress for Debt Against Strangers Act 1275 None shall be distrained for a Debt that he oweth not.
24 Unlawful Disseisin by Escheators, etc. Act 1275 The Remedy if an Officer of the King do disseise any.
25 Champerty Act 1275 None shall commit Champerty, to have Part of the Thing in Question.
26 Extortion by Officers of the Crown Act 1275 None of the King's Officers shall commit Extortion.
27 Extortion Act 1275 (c.27) Clerks of Officers shall not commit Extortion.
28 Maintenance Act 1275 Clerks shall not commit Maintenance.
29 Fraud Act 1275 The Penalty of a Serjeant or Pleader committing Deceit.
30 Extortion Act 1275 (c.30) Extortion by Justices Officers.
31 Tolls in Markets and Murage Act 1275 The Penalty for taking excessive Toll in a City, &c. Murage granted to Cities.
32 Purveyance, Crown Debts Act 1275 The Penalty of Purveyors not paying for what they take. The King's Carriages.
33 Barretors Act 1275 No Maintainers of Quarrels shall be suffered.
34 Slanderous Reports Act 1275 None shall report slanderous News, whereby Discord may arise.
35 Excess of Jurisdiction in Franchises Act 1275 The Penalty for arresting within a Liberty those that hold not thereof.
36 Aids for Knighthood, etc. Act 1275 Aid to make the Son Knight, or to marry the Daughter.
37 Dissseisin with Robbery, etc. Act 1275 The Penalty of a Man attainted of Disseisin with Robbery in the King's Time.
38 Attaints in Real Actions Act 1275 An Attaint shall be granted in Plea of Land touching Freehold.
39 Limitation of Prescription Act 1275 Several Limitations of Prescription in several Writs.
40 Voucher to Warranty Act 1275 Voucher to Warranty, and Counter-pleading of Voucher.
41 Writ of Right Act 1275 The Champion's Oath in a Writ of Right.
42 Essoins Act 1275 (c.42) Certain Actions wherein after Appearance the Tenant shall not be Essoined.
43 Essoins Act 1275 (c.43) The shall be no Fourcher by Essoin.
44 Essoins Act 1275 (c.44) In what Case Essoin ultra mare shall not be allowed.
45 Process Act 1275 In what Cases the great Distress shall be awarded. Where the Justices Estreats shall be delivered.
46 Order of Hearing Pleas Act 1275 One Plea shall be decided by the Justices before another commenced.
47 Real Actions Act 1275 In what Case the Nonage of the Heir of the Disseisor or Disseisee shall not prejudice.
48 Land in Ward Act 1275 The Remedy where a Guardian maketh a Feoffment of his Ward's Land. Suit by Prochein Amy.
49 Plea in Dower Act 1275 The Tenants Plea in a Writ of Dower.
50 Saving for the Crown Act 1275 (Riduzione dei costi per la Corona) Ancora in vigore in Inghilterra e Galles.
51 Times of Taking Certain Assizes Act 1275 Assises and Darrain Presentments at what Time taken.

Note[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  1. ^ (EN) William Stubbs, The Constitutional History of England in Its Origin and Development.
  2. ^ (EN) George Ripley e Charles A Dana (a cura di), New American Cyclopedia, vol. 13, D. Appleton & Company, 1867, p. 84.
  3. ^ (EN) F. M. Powicke, The Thirteenth Century: 1216–1307, 2ª ed., Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1962, p. 226.
  4. ^ (EN) Dignity of a Peer of the Realm, p. 173.

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