Robert Frost

Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
(EN)
« Two roads diverged in a wood, and I —
I took the one less traveled by,
And that has made all the difference »
(IT)
« Due strade divergevano in un bosco, ed io —
Io presi quella meno battuta,
E questo ha fatto tutta la differenza »
(Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken, 1916)
Robert Frost nel 1941

Robert Lee Frost (San Francisco, 26 marzo 1874Boston, 29 gennaio 1963) è stato un poeta statunitense.

Biografia[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Robert Frost nacque a San Francisco, figlio di Isabelle Moodie, scozzese, e William Prescott Frost, Jr., un discendente dei coloni che giunsero nel New Hampshire nel 1634. Frost visse in California fino all'età di 11 anni. Dopo la morte del padre si trasferì, con la madre e la sorella, nel Massachusetts, presso la casa dei nonni paterni. Si iscrisse al Dartmouth College nel 1892 e più tardi ad Harvard, ma non prese mai una laurea regolare. Frost si dedicò a numerose occupazioni dopo aver lasciato la scuola, lavorando come insegnante, calzolaio ed editore dell'opera Sentinel di D. H. Lawrence. La sua prima poesia, My Butterfly, fu pubblicata l'8 novembre del 1894, nel quotidiano The Independent.

Nel 1895, Frost sposò Elinor Miriam White, che diventò la più grande fonte d'ispirazione per le sue poesie fino alla sua morte, avvenuta nel 1938. La coppia si trasferì in Inghilterra nel 1912, dopo il fallimento della loro fattoria. Fu all'estero che Frost incontrò e fu influenzato da numerosi poeti contemporanei britannici come Edward Thomas, Rupert Brooke e Robert Graves. Mentre si trovava in Inghilterra, Frost strinse amicizia con il poeta Ezra Pound, che lo aiutò a promuovere e pubblicare i suoi lavori. Nel 1915, al momento del suo ritorno negli U.S.A., Frost aveva già pubblicato 2 raccolte complete: A Boy's Will e North of Boston, con le quali la sua reputazione si affermò completamente. Negli anni venti fu il più celebre poeta in America e con ogni nuovo libro la sua fama e i suoi onori (inclusi i suoi 4 premi Pulitzer per la poesia) crebbero.

Le sue opere sono principalmente associate al mistero e al pavore insiti nella natura ed alla vita ed ai paesaggi del New England; sebbene fosse un poeta che utilizzava forme e metrica tradizionali, rimase distaccato dai movimenti letterari e dalle mode del suo tempo.

Robert Frost visse molti anni in Massachusetts e in Vermont, e morì a Boston, nell'inverno del 1963.

Fu uno dei poeti preferiti di John Fitzgerald Kennedy.

Vita privata[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

La vita di Frost fu costellata da innumerevoli tragedie. Quando aveva undici anni, il padre morì di tubercolosi, lasciando nel suo testamento solamente otto dollari per la sua famiglia. La madre di Frost morì di cancro nel 1900 e nel 1920 Frost dovette prendere la decisione di mandare la sorella minore all'ospedale psichiatrico dove morì nove anni più tardi. Queste malattie psichiatriche erano chiaramente ereditarie e anche Frost soffrì di depressione come sua madre. Sua figlia Irma fu mandata in un ospedale psichiatrico nel 1947 e anche la moglie di Frost, Elinor, soffrì a tratti di depressione.

Elinor e Robert Frost ebbero sei bambini:

  • Elliot (1896–1904, morto di colera)
  • Lesley Frost Ballantine (1899–1983)
  • Carol (1902–1940, suicida)
  • Irma (1903–1967)
  • Marjorie (1905–1934, morta di febbre puerperale)
  • Elinor Bettina (morta solamente tre giorni dopo la nascita, nel 1907).

Alla morte di Frost nel 1963 erano vivi soltanto i figli Lesley e Irma. Sua moglie, che aveva sofferto di problemi cardiaci tutta la sua vita, era morta nel 1938 a seguito di un arresto cardiaco soltanto un anno dopo che le fu diagnosticato il cancro al seno.

La sua biografia ha influenzato le sue poesie, che, a dispetto delle tragiche esperienze personali, contengono immagini dolci e tranquille e vogliono dare una speranza ai suoi lettori.

Opere principali[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Poesie[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • A Boy's Will (David Nutt, 1913; Holt, 1915).
  • North of Boston (David Nutt, 1914; Holt, 1914).
  • Mountain Interval (Holt, 1916).
  • Selected Poems (Holt, 1923)
  • New Hampshire (Holt, 1923; Grant Richards, 1924).
  • Several Short Poems (Holt, 1924).
  • Selected Poems (Holt, 1928).
  • West-Running Brook (Holt, 1929).
  • The Lovely Shall Be Choosers (Random House, 1929).
  • Collected Poems of Robert Frost, a cura dell'autore (Holt, 1930; Longmans, Green, 1930).
  • The Lone Striker (Knopf, 1933).
  • Selected Poems: Third Edition (Holt, 1934).
  • Out, out
  • Three Poems (Baker Library, Dartmouth College, 1935).
  • The Gold Hesperidee (Bibliophile Press, 1935).
  • From Snow to Snow (Holt, 1936).
  • A Further Range (Holt, 1936; Cape, 1937).
  • Collected Poems of Robert Frost, a cura dell'autore (Holt, 1939; Longmans, Green, 1939)
  • A Witness Tree (Holt, 1942; Cape, 1943).
  • Steeple Bush (Holt, 1947).
  • Complete Poems of Robert Frost, 1949, a cura dell'autore (Holt, 1949; Cape, 1951).
  • Hard Not To Be King (House of Books, 1951).
  • Aforesaid (Holt, 1954).
  • A Remembrance Collection of New Poems (Holt, 1959).
  • You Come Too (Holt, 1959; Bodley Head, 1964)
  • In the Clearing (Holt Rinehart & Winston, 1962)
  • The Poetry of Robert Frost, (New York, 1969).
  • It is almost the Year Two Thousand (A Witness Tree; 1942)

Teatro[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • A Way Out («The Seven Arts», febbraio 1917; Harbor Press, 1929)
  • In an Art Factory
  • The Cow's in the Corn (Side Mountain Press, 1929), in versi
  • The Guardeen
  • A Masque of Reason (Holt, 1945), in versi
  • A Masque of Mercy (Holt, 1947), in versi

Altro[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • The Letters of Robert Frost to Louis Untermeyer (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1963; Cape, 1964).
  • Margaret Bartlett Anderson, Robert Frost and John Bartlett: The Record of a Friendship (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1963).
  • Selected Letters of Robert Frost, a cura di Lawrance Thompson (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964).
  • Interviews with Robert Frost, a cura di Edward Connery Lathem (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966; Cape, 1967).
  • Selected prose, a cura di Hyde Cox (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1966).
  • Family Letters of Robert and Elinor Frost (State University of New York Press, 1972).
  • A Time to Talk. Conversations and Indiscetions, a cura di Robert Francis (London: Robson Books, 1972).
  • On Writing, a cura di Elaine Barry (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1973).
  • Robert Frost and Sidney Cox: Forty Years of Friendship (University Press of New England, 1981).
  • The Collected Prose, a cura di Mark S. Richardson (Rutgers University, 1993).
  • Interviews with Robert Frost, a cura di Edward Connery Lathem (Jeffrey Norton Pub, 1997)
  • The Notebooks of Robert Frost, a cura di Robert Faggen (Harvard University Press, January 2007).
  • Peter J. Stanlis, Conversations with Robert Frost: The Bread Loaf Period (Transaction, 2009)

Traduzioni italiane[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Conoscenza della notte e altre poesie, trad. di Giovanni Giudici, Torino: Einaudi 1965 («Supercoralli», 227 pp.); a cura di Massimo Bacigalupo, Milano: Mondadori 1988 («Oscar Poesia» 32, 203 pp. ISBN 88-04-30775-7); ivi 1994 («Oscar narrativa» 1380, 306 pp. ISBN 88-04-38825-0); ivi 1999 («Poesia del Novecento» 25, 306 pp. ISBN 88-04-47294-4)
  • Poesie scelte, trad. e introduzione di Franco De Poli, Parma: Guanda 1961 («Piccola fenice» 7, 132 pp.)

Raccolta principale[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Collected Poems, Prose & Plays, a cura di Richard Poirier e Mark Richardson, New York: Literary classics of the United States, 1995 (The library of America 81, 1036 pp.)
    • Complete Poems (versione del 1949)
      • A Boy's Will (1913)
      • North of Boston (1914)
      • Mountain Interval (1916)
      • New Hampshire (1923)
      • West-Running Brook (1928)
      • A Further Range (1936)
      • A Witness Tree (1942)
      • A Masque of Reason (1945)
      • Steeple Bush (1947)
      • A Masque of Mercy (1947)
      • An Afterword (1949)
    • In the Clearing (1962)
      • Frontispiece But God's Own Descent
      • Pod of the Milkweed
      • Away!
      • A Cabin in the Clearing
      • Closed for Good
      • America Is Hard to See
      • One More Brevity
      • Escapist—Never
      • For John F. Kennedy His Inauguration
      • Kitty Hawk
      • Auspex
      • The Draft Horse
      • Ends
      • Peril of Hope
      • Questioning Faces
      • Does No One at All Ever Feel This Way in the Least?
      • The Bad Island—Easter
      • Our Doom to Bloom
      • The Objection to Being Stepped On
      • A-Wishing Well
      • How Hard It Is to Keep from Being King When It's in You and in the Situation
      • Lines Written in Dejection on the Eve of Great Success
      • The Milky Way Is a Cowpath
      • Some Science Fiction
    • Uncollected Poems
      • La Noche Triste
      • Song of the Wave
      • A Dream of Julius Caesar
      • Our Camp
      • Clear and Colder
      • The Sachem of the Clouds
      • Parting
      • Down the Brook... and Back
      • The Traitor
      • Class Hymn
      • Twilight
      • Summering
      • The Falls
      • An Unhistoric Spot
      • The Birds Do Thus
      • A Summer's Garden
      • Clouds
      • Caesar's Lost Transport Ships
      • Greece
      • Warning
      • God's Garden
      • The Rubaiyat of Carl Burell
      • The reason of my perfect ease
      • Evensong
      • Despair
      • Old Age
      • A Winter's Night
      • Love Being All One
      • Midsummer Birds
      • The Mill City
      • What Thing a Bird Would Love
      • When the Speed Comes
      • The Later Minstrel
      • The Lost Faith
      • Genealogical
      • The Parlor Joke
      • My Giving
      • On the Sale of My Farm
      • Pussy-willow Time
      • Pursuit of the Word
      • The Rain Bath
      • New Grief
      • Winter Winds
      • In England
      • Good Relief
      • In Equal Sacrifice
      • Asking for Roses
      • Spoils of the Dead
      • Poets Are Born Not Made
      • I am a Mede and Persian
      • Flower Guidance
      • Nothing ever so sincere
      • Dear Stark Young:/ Winter has beaten Summer in fight
      • On Talk of Peace at This Time
      • One Favored Acorn
      • Forest Flowers
      • The Seven Arts
      • For Allan/Who wanted to see how I wrote a poem
      • Fish-Leap Fall
      • On the Inflation of the Currency
      • A Correction
      • Oh thou that spinnest the wheel
      • The Pans
      • The Cow's in the Corn
      • The Middletown Murder
      • Lowes took the obvious position
      • Trouble Rhyming
      • Dear Louis:/The telescope has come
      • A man is as tall as his height
      • The Offer
      • Let Congress See To It
      • A Restoration
      • A little kingdom
      • Winter Ownership
      • I only go
      • Pride of Ancestry
      • Dear Leonard Bacon:/I don't know whether you are in this world or in the Old
      • Unless I call it a pewter tray
      • To prayer I think I go
      • Traces
      • Let's Not Think
      • Dear Louis:/ I'd rather there had been no war at all
      • Ten Thirty A.M
      • Were that star shining there by name
      • A Bed in the Barn
      • Pares Continuas Fututiones
      • Waste or Cod Fish Eggs
      • Wanton Waste
      • Sym-ball-ism
      • Her husband gave her a ring
      • The Prophet
      • Marx and Engels
      • For travelers going sidereal
      • The purpose of the universal plan
      • The Prophets Really Prophesy as Mystics The Commentators Merely by Statistics
  • Plays
    • A Way Out (febbraio 1917)
    • In an Art Factory (scritto nel 1920 pubblicato per la prima volta qui)
    • The Guardeen (scritto tra il 1939 e il 1942)
  • Lectures, Essays, Stories, and Letters
    • Petra and Its Surroundings
    • A Monument to After-Thought Unveiled
    • The Question of a Feather
    • The Original and Only
    • The Cockerel Buying Habit
    • Dalkins' Little Indulgence: A Christmas Story
    • Children's Stories
      • Schneider and the Woodchuck
      • Schneider and the Little Bird
      • The Wise Men
    • The Pinkerton Academy English Curriculum
    • To John T. Bartlett, July 4, 1913
    • To John T. Bartlett, c. November 5, 1913
    • To Sidney Cox, January 19, 1914
    • To John T. Bartlett, February 22, 1914
    • To John Cournos, July 8, 1914
    • To Sidney Cox, December 1914
    • To William Braithwaite, March 22, 1915
    • "The Imagining Ear"
    • To Walter Pritchard Eaton, September 18, 1915
    • To Louis Untermeyer, January I, 1917
    • To Régis Michaud
    • The Unmade Word, or Fetching and Far-Fetching
    • Address to the Amherst Alumni Council
    • Some Definitions
    • To Louis Untermeyer, March 10, 1924
    • Preface to Memoirs of the Notorious Stephen Burroughs
    • Introduction to The Arts Anthology: Dartmouth Verse
    • Tribute to Percy MacKaye
    • The Poetry of Amy Lowell
    • Preface to A Way Out
    • To Sidney Cox, c. September 19, 1929
    • To Kimball Flaccus, October 26, 1930
    • Education by Poetry: A Meditative Monologue
    • To Sidney Cox, c. April 19, 1932
    • On "Birches"
    • To Wilbert Snow, c. May 16, 1933
    • To Lesley Frost Francis, 1934
    • To Books We Like
    • Letter to The Amherst Student
    • Introduction to E. A. Robinson's King Jasper
    • Introduction to Sarah Cleghorn's Threescore
    • To Louis Untermeyer, November 25, 1936
    • What Became of New England?
    • Poverty and Poetry
    • The Poet's Next of Kin in College
    • To Robert P. T. Coffin, February 24, 1938
    • The Figure a Poem Makes
    • Remarks on Receiving the Gold Medal
    • The Doctrine of Excursions
    • Preface to Poems in This Is My Best
    • Preface to "The Death of the Hired Man"
    • The Constant Symbol
    • "Sermon" at Rockdale Avenue Temple
    • Speaking of Loyalty
    • A Romantic Chasm
    • Preface to Poems in The World's Best
    • Poetry and School
    • On the Poems of Hervey Allen
    • "Reading Poems at Tufts"
    • The Hear-Say Ballad
    • The Prerequisites
    • To the Poets of Japan
    • On Taking Poetry
    • "Caveat Poeta"
    • A Perfect Day—A Day of Prowess
    • Maturity No Object
    • Preface to A Swinger of Birches, by Sidney Cox
    • To the Poets of Korea
    • "What Worries You Most About America Today?"
    • Merrill Moore
    • The Case of The United State of America versus Ezra Pound
    • On Being Appointed Consultant to the Library of Congress
    • The Way There
    • Preface to an Expanded North of Boston
    • Dorothy Canfield
    • "Books That Have Meant the Most"
    • Conversations on the Craft of Poetry
    • On Emerson
    • The Future of Man
    • The Future of Man (versione inedita)
    • Paris Review Interview, with Richard Poirier
    • A Poet's Boyhood
    • A New England Tribute
    • Ernest Hemingway
    • On "Choose Something Like a Star"
    • William Faulkner
    • On the Cold War
    • On Extravagance: A Talk

Biografie[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Lawrance Thompson, Robert Frost: The Early Years, 1874-1915 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966)
  • Lawrance Thompson, Robert Frost: The Years of Triumph, 1915-1938 (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1970)
  • Natalie S. Bober, A Restless Spirit: the Story of Robert Frost (Atheneum Books, 1981; Henry Holt & Co., 1991)
  • Jeffrey Meyers, Robert Frost: a Biography (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1996)
  • Jay Parini, Robert Frost: a Life (Henry Holt & Co., 1999)

Critica[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  • Stanley Burnshaw, Robert Frost Himself (George Braziller, 1986)
  • Richard Poirier, Robert Frost: the Work of Knowing (Stanford University Press 1990)
  • Joseph Brodsky, Seamus Heaney, Derek Walcott, Homage to Robert Frost (Farrar Straus Giroux, 1996)
  • Paola Loreto, La voce di Robert Frost. Un timbro grave sotto un timbro leggero, (CUEM, 1999)
  • Nancy L. Tuten e John Zubizarreta (a cura di), The Robert Frost Encyclopedia (Greenwood, 2000)
  • Robert Faggen (a cura di), The Cambridge Companion to Robert Frost (Cambridge University Press, 2001)
  • Tyler Hoffman, Robert Frost and the Politics of Poetry (Middlebury College Press, 2001)
  • Robert Bernard Hass, Going by Contraries: Robert Frost's Conflict with Science (University of Virginia Press, 2002)
  • Robert Pack, Belief and Uncertainty in the Poetry of Robert Frost (Middlebury College Press, 2003)
  • Harold Bloom, Robert Frost (Modern Critical Views) (Chelsea House Publishers, 2003)
  • Peter J. Stanlis, Robert Frost: The Poet as Philosopher (ISI Books, 2007)
  • Morris Dickstein, Critical Insights: Robert Frost (Salem Press, 2009)

Altri progetti[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Controllo di autorità VIAF: 32010055 LCCN: n79005644