Premio Sakurai

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Cinque dei sei vincitori del premio Sakurai 2010: Tom Kibble, Gerald Guralnik, C. R. Hagen, Francois Englert e Robert Brout

Il Premio J. J. Sakurai per la fisica teorica delle particelle, è assegnato dalla American Physical Society al suo incontro di Aprile annuale (April Meeting), e premia i risultati teorici più importanti della teoria della fisica delle particelle.

Il premio consiste in un importo in denaro, un certificato che cita i contributi riconosciuti dal premio e il rimborso del viaggio per la partecipazione alla premiazione. Il premio è sovvenzionato dalla famiglia e dagli amici del fisico teorico delle particelle J. J. Sakurai.

Il premio è stato assegnato annualmente dal 1985.[1]

Lista dei premiati[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Come riporta il sito ufficiale, i premiati sono stati i seguenti:

  • 2008  Alexei Smirnov e Stanislav Mikheyev: "Per l'influente e pionieristico lavoro sullo sviluppo delle oscillazioni del neutrino nella materia, che è essenziale per una comprensione quantitativa del flusso solare dei neutrini."[5]
  • 2006  Savas Dimopoulos: "Per le sue idee creative sulla rottura di simmetria dinamica, la supersimmetria e le dimensioni spaziali extra che hanno segnato la ricerca teoria alla scal del Tev e quindi ispirato un'ampia gamma di esperimenti."[7].
  • 2005  Susumu Okubo: "Per le investigazioi all'avanguardia dei pattern delle masse adroniche e dei tassi di decadimento che hanno fornito indizi fondamentali nello sviluppo del modello a quark e per avere dimostrato che la violazione di CP permette asimmetrie nei tassi di decadimento parziali"[8].
  • 2004  Ikaros Bigi e Anthony Ichiro Sanda: "Per le pioneristiche intuizioni teoriche che hanno indicato la strada al fruttuoso studio sperimentali della violazione di CP nei decadimenti [della particella] B e per i continui contributi ai campi di CP e della fisica dei sapori pesanti"[9].
  • 2003  Alfred Mueller e George Sterman: "For developing concepts and techniques in QCD, such as infrared safety and factorization in hard processes, which permitted precise quantitative predictions and experimental tests, and thereby helped to establish QCD as the theory of the strong interactions"
  • 2002  William J. Marciano e Alberto Sirlin: "For their pioneering work on radiative corrections, which made precision electroweak studies a powerful method of probing the Standard Model and searching for new physics"
  • 2001  Nathan Isgur, Mikhail Voloshin, Mark Wise: "For the construction of the heavy quark mass expansion and the discovery of the heavy quark symmetry in quantum chromodynamics, which led to a quantitative theory of the decays of c and b flavored hadrons"
  • 1998  Leonard Susskind: "For his pioneering contributions to hadronic string models, lattice gauge theories, quantum chromodynamics, and dynamical symmetry breaking"
  • 1997  Thomas Appelquist: "For his pioneering work on charmonium and on the de-coupling of heavy particles"
  • 1996  William A. Bardeen: "For fundamental insights into the structure and meaning of the axial anomaly and for contributions to the understanding of perturbative quantum chromodynamics"
  • 1994  Yoichiro Nambu: "For his many fundamental contributions to field theory and particle physics, including the understanding of the pion as the signaler of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry"
  • 1993  Mary K. Gaillard: "For contributions to particle physics phenomenology and theory, and in particular for her work with Ben Lee and others applying QCD to K meson mixing and decays and to the bound states of charmed quarks"
  • 1992  Lincoln Wolfenstein: "For his many contributions to the theory of weak interactions, particularly CP violation and the properties of neutrinos"
  • 1991  Vladimir Gribov: "For his early pioneering work on the high energy behavior of quantum field theories and his elucidating studies of the global structure of non-abelian gauge theories"
  • 1990  Toichiro Kinoshita: "For his theoretical contributions to precision tests of quantum electrodynamics and the electroweak theory, especially his pioneering work on the computation of the lepton anomalous magnetic moments"
  • 1989  Nicola Cabibbo: "For his outstanding contribution in elucidating the structure of the hadronic weak current"
  • 1988  Stephen L. Adler: "For his work in elucidating the consequences of chiral symmetry through sum rules and low energy theorems"
  • 1987  Luciano Maiani e John Iliopoulos: "For their work on the weak interactions of charmed particles, a crucial step in the development of the modern theory of the fundamental interactions"
  • 1986  David Gross, H. David Politzer, e Frank Wilczek: "For their analyses of nonabelian gauge theories at short distances, and the implications of these insights for the understanding of the strong interaction between quarks"
  • 1985  Toshihide Maskawa e Makoto Kobayashi: "For their contributions to the theory of electroweak interactions through their general formulation of fermion mass matrix and their prescient inference of the existence of more than four flavors of quarks"

Note[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  1. ^ American Physical Society, J. J. Sakurai Prize for Theoretical Particle Physics. URL consultato il 23 ottobre 2009.
  2. ^ "For their work, separately and collectively, to chart a course of the exploration of TeV scale physics using multi-TeV hadron colliders."
  3. ^ "For elucidation of the properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking in four-dimensional relativistic gauge theory and of the mechanism for the consistent generation of vector boson masses."
  4. ^ "For work in perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics, including applications to problems pivotal to the interpretation of high energy particle collisions."
  5. ^ "For pioneering and influential work on the enhancement of neutrino oscillations in matter, which is essential to a quantitative understanding of the solar neutrino flux."
  6. ^ "For applications of perturbative quantum field theory to critical questions of elementary particle physics, in particular, to the analysis of hard exclusive strong interaction processes."
  7. ^ "For his creative ideas on dynamical symmetry breaking, supersymmetry, and extra spatial dimensions, which have shaped theoretical research on TeV-scale physics, thereby inspiring a wide range of experiments."
  8. ^ "For groundbreaking investigations into the pattern of hadronic masses and decay rates, which provided essential clues into the development of the quark model, and for demonstrating that CP violation permits partial decay rate asymmetries."
  9. ^ "For pioneering theoretical insights that pointed the way to the very fruitful experimental study of CP violation in B decays, and for continuing contributions to the fields of CP and heavy flavor physics."

Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

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