Past simple

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Il past simple (in italiano passato semplice) è un tempo verbale della lingua inglese.

Si usa per descrivere un'azione, una situazione o un evento concluso in maniera definitiva e permanente, sia che sia avvenuta in un passato recente che distante.

Inoltre occorre che nella frase sia esplicitato il periodo di riferimento e che questo sia interamente concluso.

Past simple del verbo essere

Per il verbo to be ci sono due forme di past simple (was e were).

Forma affermativa

La forma affermativa del verbo to be è la seguente:

I was

You were

He/She/It was

We were

You were

They were

Forma negativa

La forma negativa si forma aggiungendo not alla forma affermativa:

I was not - I wasn't

You were not - You weren't

He/She/It was not - He/She/It wasn't

We were not - We weren't

You were not - You weren't

They were not - They weren't

Forma interrogativa

La forma interrogativa del verbo to be si forma anteponendo il verbo al soggetto:

Was I?

Were you?

Was he/she/it?

Were we?

Were you?

Were they?

Risposte brevi

Per le risposte brevi, in inglese non è sufficiente rispondere con un semplice "si" o "no" per come si fa in italiano. Bisogna aggiungere il verbo essere declinato correttamente:

Yes, I was - No, I wasn't

Yes, you were - No, you weren't

Yes, he/she/it was - No, he/she/it wasn't

Yes, we were - No, we weren't

Yes, you were - No, we weren't

Yes, they were - No, they weren't

Formazione dei verbi regolari

Forma affermativa

Per formare la forma affermativa del past simple dei verbi regolari, si aggiunge la desinenza -ed alla forma base del verbo (che si ottiene prendendo l'infinito del verbo e togliendo il to che vi è anteposto). Non varia in base alla persona. Prendendo, ad esempio, il verbo to work, si avrà quindi:

I worked

You worked

He/She/It worked

We worked

You worked

They worked

Eccezioni

La regola base di formazione del past simple è che bisogna aggiungere la desinenza -ed alla forma base del verbo. Ci sono tuttavia delle eccezioni; quando la forma base del verbo termina in:

  • -e muta → si aggiunge soltanto la "d"
    • hope/hoped
    • situate/situated
    • change/changed
    • die/died
  • consonante preceduta da una sola vocale → si raddoppia la consonante e di aggiunge ed
    • stop/stopped
    • travel/travelled
  • -y preceduta da una consonante → la "y" si toglie e si aggiunge ied
    • study/studied
    • marry/married

Forma negativa

Per la forma negativa del past simple, bisognerà aggiungere il verbo to do (declinato al past simple) seguito da not dopo il soggetto e prima del verbo principale posto nella sua forma base.

I did not - I didn't work

You did not work - You didn't work

He/She/It did not work - He/She/It didn't work

We did not work - We didn't work

You did not work - You didn't work

They did not work - They didn't work

Forma interrogativa

La forma interrogativa del past simple di forma ponendo did all'inizio della frase, seguito dal soggetto e infine dal verbo nella sua forma base:

Did I work?

Did you work?

Did he/she/it work?

Did we work?

Did you work?

Did they work?

Risposte brevi

Per formare le risposte brevi, in inglese bisognerà far seguire l'ausiliare did al "si" o al "no":

Yes, I did - No, I didn't

Yes, you did - No, you didn't

Yes, he/she/it did - No, he/she/it didn't

Yes, we did - No, we didn't

Yes, you did - No, you didn't

Yes, they did - No, they didn't

Formazione dei Verbi irregolari

In inglese, esistono i verbi irregolari che, al past simple hanno una forma separata e non deducibile dalla regola generale. Bisogna quindi imparare a memoria i paradigmi.

to become → became
to begin → began
to blow → blew
to bring → brought
to build → built
to burn → burned/burnt
to buy → bought
to can → could
to catch → caught
to come → came
to cost → cost
to do → did
to draw → drew
to dream → dreamed/dreamt
to drink → drank
to drive → drove
to eat → ate
to feel → felt
to find → found
to fly → flew
to forget → forgot
to get → got
to give → gave
to go → went
to grow → grew

to have → had

to hear → heard
to hide → hid
to hit → hit
to hold → held
to keep → kept
to know → knew
to learn → learned/learnt
to leave → left
to lend → lent
to let → let
to lose → lost
to make → made
to mean → meant
to meet → met
to pay → paid
to put → put
to read → read
to ride → rode
to run → ran
to say → said
to see → saw
to sell → sold
to send → sent
to set → set
to shine → shone
to show → showed
to shut → shut
to sing → sang
to sit → sat
to sleep → slept
to smell → smelled/smelt
to speak → spoke
to spend → spent
to steal → s:tole
to sting → stung
to strike → struck
to swim → swam
to take → took
to teach → taught
to tell → told
to think → thought
to understand → understood
to wake → woke
to wear → wore
to win → won
to wind → wound
to write → wrote

Esistono anche frasi chiamate "Phrasal verb list".

break down
break up
calm off
calm down
carry on
chat up
chuck out
deal with
depend on
drop out
fed up
finish with
follow up
fond of
get away with
get together
go out with
grow up
hang up
look forward to
look into
look out for
look through
look up
move out
plug in
put across
put forward
put in
put on
put off
put out
put together
put up
put up with
rip off
role up
roll down
set up
split up
switch off
switch on
take off
take out
talk through
turn down
turn up
work out

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