Past simple

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Il past simple (in italiano passato semplice) è un tempo verbale della lingua inglese.

Si usa per descrivere un'azione, una situazione o un evento concluso in maniera definitiva e permanente, sia che sia avvenuta in un passato recente che distante.

Past simple del verbo essere

Per il verbo to be ci sono due forme di past simple (was e were).

Forma affermativa

La forma affermativa del verbo to be è la seguente:

I was

You were

He/She/It was

We were

You were

They were

Forma negativa

La forma negativa si forma aggiungendo not alla forma affermativa:

I was not - I wasn't

You were not - You weren't

He/She/It was not - He/She/It wasn't

We were not - We weren't

You were not - You weren't

They were not - They weren't

Forma interrogativa

La forma interrogativa del verbo to be si forma anteponendo il verbo al soggetto:

Was I?

Were you?

Was he/she/it?

Were we?

Were you?

Were they?

Risposte brevi

Per le risposte brevi, in inglese non è sufficiente rispondere con un semplice "si" o "no" per come si fa in italiano. Bisogna aggiungere il verbo essere declinato correttamente:

Yes, I was - No, I wasn't

Yes, you were - No, you weren't

Yes, he/she/it was - No, he/she/it wasn't

Yes, we were - No, we weren't

Yes, you were - No, we weren't

Yes, they were - No, they weren't

Formazione dei verbi regolari

Forma affermativa

Per formare la forma affermativa del past simple dei verbi regolari, si aggiunge la desinenza -ed alla forma base del verbo (che si ottiene prendendo l'infinito del verbo e togliendo il to che vi è anteposto). Non varia in base alla persona. Prendendo, ad esempio, il verbo to work, si avrà quindi:

I worked

You worked

He/She/It worked

We worked

You worked

They worked

Eccezioni

La regola base di formazione del past simple è che bisogna aggiungere la desinenza -ed alla forma base del verbo. Ci sono tuttavia delle eccezioni; quando la forma base del verbo termina in:

  • -e muta → si aggiunge soltanto la "d"
    • hope/hoped
    • situate/situated
    • change/changed
    • die/died
  • consonante preceduta da una sola vocale → si raddoppia la consonante e di aggiunge ed
    • stop/stopped
    • travel/travelled
  • -y preceduta da una consonante → la "y" si toglie e si aggiunge ied
    • study/studied
    • marry/married

Forma negativa

Per la forma negativa del past simple, bisognerà aggiungere il verbo to do (declinato al past simple) seguito da not dopo il soggetto e prima del verbo principale posto nella sua forma base.

I did not - I didn't work

You did not work - You didn't work

He/She/It did not work - He/She/It didn't work

We did not work - We didn't work

You did not work - You didn't work

They did not work - They didn't work

Forma interrogativa

La forma interrogativa del past simple di forma ponendo did all'inizio della frase, seguito dal soggetto e infine dal verbo nella sua forma base:

Did I work?

Did you work?

Did he/she/it work?

Did we work?

Did you work?

Did they work?

Risposte brevi

Per formare le risposte brevi, in inglese bisognerà far seguire l'ausiliario did al "si" o al "no":

Yes, I did - No, I didn't

Yes, you did - No, you didn't

Yes, he/she/it did - No, he/she/it didn't

Yes, we did - No, we didn't

Yes, you did - No, you didn't

Yes, they did - No, they didn't

Formazione dei Verbi irregolari

In inglese, esistono i verbi irregolari che, al past simple hanno una forma separata e non deducibile dalla regola generale. Bisogna quindi imparare a memoria i paradigmi.

to become → became
to begin → began
to blow → blew
to bring → brought
to build → built
to burn → burned/burnt
to buy → bought
to can → could
to catch → caught
to come → came
to cost → cost
to do → did
to draw → drew
to dream → dreamed/dreamt
to drink → drank
to drive → drove
to eat → ate
to feel → felt
to find → found
to fly → flew
to forget → forgot
to get → got
to give → gave
to go → went
to grow → grew

to have → had

to hear → heard
to hide → hid
to hit → hit
to hold → held
to keep → kept
to know → knew
to learn → learned/learnt
to leave → left
to lend → lent
to let → let
to lose → lost
to make → made
to mean → meant
to meet → met
to pay → paid
to put → put
to read → read
to ride → rode
to run → ran
to say → said
to see → saw
to sell → sold
to send → sent
to set → set
to shine → shone
to show → showed
to shut → shut
to sing → sang
to sit → sat
to sleep → slept
to smell → smelled/smelt
to speak → spoke
to spend → spent
to steal → s:tole
to sting → stung
to strike → struck
to swim → swam
to take →:took
to teach → taught
to tell →:told
to think → thought
to understand → understood
to wake → woke
to wear → wore
to win → won
to wind → wound
to write → wrote

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