Elenco cronologico dei linguaggi di programmazione

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Questo è un elenco cronologico dei linguaggi di programmazione per ordine di apparizione. Di ognuno viene riportato l'eventuale predecessore, l'anno in cui è apparso, il nome del linguaggio stesso, l'autore (se noto) e, in alcuni casi, l'azienda dove è stato sviluppato.

Prima degli anni '50[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Anno Nome Team di programmatori Predecessore/i
circa 1837 Analytical Engine order code Charles Babbage e Ada Lovelace
1943-5 Plankalkül (concetto) Konrad Zuse
1943-6 ENIAC coding system John von Neumann, John Mauchly, J. Presper Eckert, Herman Goldstine dopo Alan Turing
1946 ENIAC Short Code Richard Clippinger, John von Neumann dopo Alan Turing ENIAC coding system
1946 Von Neumann e Goldstine graphing system (notazione) John von Neumann e Herman Goldstine ENIAC coding system
1947 ARC Assembly Kathleen Booth ENIAC coding system
1948 CPC Coding scheme Howard H. Aiken Analytical Engine order code
1948 Curry notation system Haskell Curry ENIAC coding system
1949 Brief Code John Mauchly e William F. Schmitt ENIAC Short Code
1949 C-10 Betty Holberton ENIAC Short Code
1949 Seeber coding scheme (concetto) Robert Seeber CPC Coding scheme

Anni '50[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Anno Nome Team di programmatori Predecessore/i
1950 Short Code William F Schmidt, A.B. Tonik[1], J.R. Logan Brief Code
1950 Birkbeck Assembler Kathleen Booth ARC
1951 Superplan Heinz Rutishauser Plankalkül
1951 ALGAE Edward A Voorhees e Karl Balke
1951 Intermediate linguaggio di programmazione Arthur Burks Short Code
1951 Regional Assembly Language Maurice Wilkes EDSAC
1951 Boehm unnamed coding system Corrado Böhm Aiken CPC system
1951 Klammerausdrücke Konrad Zuse Plankalkül
1951 OMNIBAC Symbolic Assembler Charles Katz Short Code
1951 Stanislaus (notazione) Fritz Bauer
1951 Whirlwind assembler Charles Adams e Jack Gilmore al MIT Project Whirlwind EDSAC
1951 Rochester assembler Nat Rochester EDSAC
1951 Sort Merge Generator Betty Holberton
1952 A-0 Grace Hopper C-10 e Short Code
1952 Autocode Alick Glennie dopo di Alan Turing Aiken CPC
1952 Editing Generator Milly Koss SORT/MERGE
1952 COMPOOL RAND/SDC
1953 Speedcoding John W. Backus
1953 READ/PRINT Don Harroff, James Fishman, George Ryckman
1954 Laning e Zierler system Laning, Zierler, Adams al MIT Project Whirlwind
1954 Mark I Autocode Tony Brooker Glennie Autocode
1954-1955 Fortran (concetto) Team condotto da John W. Backus alla IBM Speedcoding
1954 ARITH-MATIC Team condotto da Grace Hopper al UNIVAC A-0
1954 MATH-MATIC Team condotto da Charles Katz A-0
1954 MATRIX MATH H G Kahrimanian
1954 IPL I (concetto) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon
1955 FLOW-MATIC Team condotto da Grace Hopper al UNIVAC A-0
1955 BACAIC M. Grems e R. Porter
1955 PACT I SHARE FORTRAN, A-2
1955-6 Sequentielle Formelübersetzung Fritz Bauer e Karl Samelson Boehm
1955-6 IT Team condotto da Alan Perlis Laning e Zerler
1955 PRINT IBM
1958 IPL II (implementazione) Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon IPL I
1956-1958 Lisp (concetto) John McCarthy IPL
1957 COMTRAN Bob Bemer FLOW-MATIC
1957 FORTRAN "I" (implementazione) John W. Backus al IBM FORTRAN 0
1957-1958 UNICODE Remington Rand UNIVAC MATH-MATIC
1957 COMIT (concetto)
1958 FORTRAN II Team condotto da John W. Backus al IBM FORTRAN I
1958 ALGOL 58 (IAL) ACM/GAMM FORTRAN, IT e Sequentielle Formelübersetzung
1958 IPL V Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon IPL II
1959 FACT Fletcher R. Jones, Roy Nutt, Robert L. Patrick
1959 COBOL (concetto) The CODASYL Committee FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN, FACT
1959 JOVIAL Jules Schwartz al SDC ALGOL 58
1959 Lisp (implementazione) John McCarthy IPL
1959 TRAC (concetto) Mooers

Anni '60[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Anno Nome Team di programmatori Predecessore/i
1960 ALGOL 60 ALGOL 58
1960 COBOL 61 (implementazione) The CODASYL Committee FLOW-MATIC, COMTRAN
1961 COMIT (implementazione)
1962 FORTRAN IV FORTRAN II
1962 APL (concetto) Iverson
1962 MAD Arden ed altri ALGOL 58
1962 Simula (concetto) ALGOL 60
1962 SNOBOL Griswold ed altri FORTRAN II, COMIT
1963 CPL Barron, Strachey ed altri ALGOL 60
1963 SNOBOL3 Griswold ed altri SNOBOL
1963 ALGOL 68 (concetto) van Wijngaarden ed altri ALGOL 60
1963 JOSS I Cliff Shaw, RAND ALGOL 58
1964 MIMIC H. E. Petersen ed altri MIDAS
1964 COWSEL Burstall, Popplestone CPL, Lisp
1964 PL/I (concetto) IBM ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1964 BASIC Kemeny e Kurtz FORTRAN II, JOSS
1964 IBM RPG IBM FARGO
1964 Mark-IV Informatics
1964 Speakeasy-2 Stanley Cohen al Argonne National Laboratory Speakeasy
1964 TRAC (implementazione) Mooers
1964? IITRAN
1965 TELCOMP BBN JOSS
1966 JOSS II Chuck Baker, RAND JOSS I
1966 ALGOL W Niklaus Wirth, C. A. R. Hoare ALGOL 60
1966 FORTRAN 66 FORTRAN IV
1966 ISWIM Landin Lisp
1966 CORAL66 ALGOL 60
1967 BCPL Richards CPL
1967 MUMPS Massachusetts General Hospital FORTRAN, TELCOMP
1967 APL (implementazione) Iverson
1967 SIMULA 67 (implementazione) Dahl, Myhrhaug e Nygaard alla Norsk Regnesentral ALGOL 60
1967 Interlisp D.G. Bobrow e D.L. Murphy Lisp
1967 SNOBOL4 Griswold ed altri SNOBOL3
1967 XPL W. M. McKeeman ed altri al Università della California, Santa Cruz. J. J. Horning ed altri al Stanford University PL/I
1968 ALGOL 68 (UNESCO/IFIP standard) A. van Wijngaarden, B.J. Mailloux, J.E.L. Peck e Cornelis H. A. Koster ed altri ALGOL 60
1968 POP-1 Burstall, Popplestone COWSEL
1968 DIBOL-8 DEC DIBOL
1968 FORTH (concetto) Moore
1968 LOGO Papert Lisp
1968 MAPPER Unisys CRT RPS
1968 Refal (implementazione) Valentin Turchin
1969 PL/I (implementazione) IBM ALGOL 60, COBOL, FORTRAN
1969 B Ken Thompson, con il contributo di Dennis Ritchie BCPL
1969 PPL Thomas A. Standish al Harvard University
1969 SETL Jack Schwartz al Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences
1969 TUTOR Università di Illinois al Urbana-Champaign

Anni '70[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Anno Nome Team di programmatori Predecessore/i
1970? FORTH (implementazione) Moore
1970 POP-2 POP-1
1970 Pascal Wirth, Jensen ALGOL 60, ALGOL W
1971 Sue Holt ed altri al Università di Toronto Pascal, XPL
1972 Smalltalk Xerox PARC SIMULA 67
1972 PL/M Kildall al Digital Research PL/I, ALGOL, XPL
1972 C Dennis Ritchie B, BCPL, ALGOL 68
1972 INTERCAL Don Woods e James M. Lyon
1972 Prolog Colmerauer 2-level W-Grammar
1973 COMAL Christensen, Løfstedt Pascal, BASIC
1973 ML Robin Milner
1973 LIS Ichbiah ed altri al CII Honeywell Bull Pascal, Sue
1973 Speakeasy-3 Stanley Cohen, Steven Pieper al Argonne National Laboratory Speakeasy-2
1974 GRASS DeFanti BASIC
1974 BASIC FOUR MAI BASIC Four Inc. Business BASIC
1975 ABC Leo Geurts e Lambert Meertens SETL
1975 Scheme Sussman, Steele Lisp
1975 Altair BASIC Gates, Allen BASIC
1975 CS-4 Miller, Brosgol ed altri al Intermetrics ALGOL 68, BLISS, ECL, HAL
1975 Modula Wirth Pascal
1976 Smalltalk-76 Xerox PARC Smalltalk-72
1976 Ratfor Kernighan C, FORTRAN
1976 S John Chambers al Bell Labs APL, PPL, Scheme
1977 FP John Backus
1977 Bourne shell (sh) Bourne
1977 IDL David Stern of Research Systems Inc Fortran
1977 Standard MUMPS MUMPS
1977 Icon (concetto) Griswold SNOBOL
1977 Green Ichbiah ed altri al CII Honeywell Bull per US Dept of Defense ALGOL 68, LIS
1977 Red Brosgol ed altri al Intermetrics per US Dept of Defense ALGOL 68, CS-4
1977 Blue Goodenough ed altri al SofTech per US Dept of Defense ALGOL 68,
1977 Yellow Spitzen ed altri al SRI International per US Dept of Defense ALGOL 68,
1978? MATLAB Moler al the Università di New Mexico
1978? SMALL Brownlee al the Università di Auckland Algol60
1978 SQL aka structured query language IBM Ingres
1978 VisiCalc Bricklin, Frankston marketed by VisiCorp
1979 Modula-2 Wirth Modula
1979 REXX Cowlishaw PL/I, BASIC, EXEC 2
1979 Awk Aho, Weinberger, Kernighan C, SNOBOL
1979 Icon (implementazione) Griswold SNOBOL
1979 Vulcan dBase-II Ratliff

Anni '80[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Anno Nome Team di programmatori Predecessore/i
1980 C with classes Stroustrup C, SIMULA 67
1980-1981 CBASIC Gordon Eubanks BASIC, Compiler Systems, Digital Research
1982? Speakeasy-IV Stanley Cohen ed altri al Speakeasy Computing Corporation Speakeasy-3
1982 Objective-C Brad Cox Smalltalk, C
1983 GW-BASIC Microsoft IBM BASICA
1983 Ada CII Honeywell Bull Green
1983 C++ Stroustrup C with Classes
1983 True BASIC Kemeny, Kurtz al Dartmouth College BASIC
1983 occam David May EPL
1983? ABAP SAP AG COBOL
1984? Korn shell (ksh) David Korn sh
1984 RPL Hewlett-Packard Forth, Lisp
1984 Standard ML ML
1984 CLIPPER Nantucket dBase
1984 Common Lisp Guy L. Steele, Jr. e many others Lisp
1984 Redcode Alexander Dewdney e D.G. Jones
1984 OPL PSION
1985 Object Pascal Apple Computer Pascal
1985 PARADOX Borland dBase
1985 PostScript Warnock InterPress
1985 QuickBASIC Microsoft BASIC
1986 GFA BASIC Frank Ostrowski BASIC
1986 Miranda David Turner al Università di Kent
1986 LabVIEW National Instruments
1986 Eiffel Meyer SIMULA 67
1986 Informix-4GL Informix
1986 PROMAL C
1986 CorVision Cortex INFORM
1987 Self (concetto) Sun Microsystems Inc. Smalltalk
1987 occam 2 David May e INMOS occam
1987 HyperTalk Apple
1987 Perl Wall C, sed, awk, sh
1987 Oberon Wirth Modula-2
1987 Erlang Joe Armstrong e others in Ericsson Prolog
1987 Mathematica Wolfram Research
1987 Turbo Basic Robert 'Bob' Zale BASIC/Z
1988 Octave MATLAB
1988 Tcl Ousterhout Awk, Lisp
1988 STOS BASIC François Lionet e Constantin Sotiropoulos BASIC
1988 Object REXX Simon C. Nash REXX
1988 SPARK Bernard A. Carré Ada
1988 A+ Arthur Whitney APL
1989 Turbo Pascal OOP Hejlsberg al Borland Turbo Pascal, Object Pascal
1989 Modula-3 Cardeli, et al. DEC e Olivetti Modula-2
1989 PowerBASIC Robert 'Bob' Zale Turbo Basic
1989 VisSim Peter Darnell, Visual Solutions

Anni '90[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Anno Nome Team di programmatori Predecessore/i
1990 AMOS BASIC François Lionet e Constantin Sotiropoulos STOS BASIC
1990 Object Oberon H Mössenböck, J Templ, R Griesemer Oberon
1990 J Iverson, R. Hui al Iverson Software APL, FP
1990 Haskell Miranda
1990 EuLisp Common Lisp, Scheme
1991 Oberon-2 Hanspeter Mössenböck, Wirth Object Oberon
1991 Python Van Rossum ABC, ALGOL 68[2], Icon, Modula-3
1991 Oz Gert Smolka e i suoi studenti Prolog
1991 Q Albert Gräf
1991 Visual Basic Alan Cooper, venduto alla Microsoft QuickBASIC
1992 Borland Pascal Turbo Pascal OOP
1992 Dylan vari sviluppatori alla Apple Computer Common Lisp, Scheme
1993? Z shell (zsh) ksh
1993? Self (implementazione) Sun Microsystems Inc. Smalltalk
1993 Brainfuck Urban Müller
1993 FALSE Wouter van Oortmerssen Forth
1993 Revolution Transcript HyperTalk
1993 AppleScript Apple HyperTalk
1993 K Arthur Whitney APL, Lisp
1993 Ruby Yukihiro Matsumoto Smalltalk, Perl
1993 Lua Roberto Ierusalimschy ed altri al Tecgraf, PUC-Rio Lua
1993 ZPL Chamberlain ed altri al Università di Washington C
1993 NewtonScript Walter Smith Self, Dylan
1994 ANSI Common Lisp Common Lisp
1994 PHP Rasmus Lerdorf Perl
1994 Pike Fredrik Hübinette et al. al Università di Linköping LPC, C, µLPC
1994 ANS Forth Elizabeth Rather, et al. Forth
1995 Borland Delphi Anders Hejlsberg al Borland Borland Pascal
1995 ColdFusion (CFML) Allaire
1995 Java James Gosling al Sun Microsystems C, SIMULA67 OR C++, Smalltalk, Ada 83, Objective-C
1995 LiveScript Brendan Eich al Netscape Self, C
1995 SQL Michael Widenius e David Axmark C, C++
1995 Ada 95 Tucker Taft Ada 83
1996 Curl David Kranz, Steve Ward, Chris Terman al MIT Lisp, C++, Tcl/Tk, TeX, HTML
1996 JavaScript Brendan Eich al Netscape LiveScript
1996 Perl Data Language (PDL) Karl Glazebrook, Jarle Brinchmann, Tuomas Lukka, e Christian Soeller APL, Perl
1996 R Robert Gentleman e Ross Ihaka S
1996 NetRexx Cowlishaw REXX
1996 Lasso Blue World Communication
1996 SuperCollider James McCartney
1997 Component Pascal Oberon microsystems, Inc Oberon-2
1997 E Mark S. Miller Joule, Original-E
1997 Pico Free Università di Brussels Scheme
1997 Squeak Smalltalk Alan Kay ed altri al Apple Computer Smalltalk-80, Self
1997 ECMAScript ECMA TC39-TG1 JavaScript
1997 F-Script Philippe Mougin Smalltalk, APL, Objective-C
1997 ISLISP ISO Standard ISLISP Common Lisp
1997 Tea Jorge Nunes Java, Scheme, Tcl
1997 REBOL Carl Sassenrath, Rebol Technologies Self, Forth, Lisp, Logo
1998 Standard C++ ANSI/ISO Standard C++ C++, Standard C
1998 Open Source Erlang Ericsson Erlang
1998 PIKT Robert Osterlund (then al Università di Chicago) AWK, Perl, Unix shell
1999 XSLT (+ XPath) W3C, James Clark DSSSL
1999 Game Maker Language (GML) Mark Overmars Game Maker

2000[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Anno Nome Team di programmatori Predecessore/i
2000 Join Java G Stewart von Itzstein Java
2000 Joy von Thun FP, Forth
2000 D Walter Bright al Digital Mars C, C++, C#, Java
2000 XL Christophe de Dinechin Ada, C++, Lisp
2000 C# Anders Hejlsberg per Microsoft (ECMA) C, C++, Java, Delphi, Modula-2
2000 Ferite Chris Ross C, C++, Java, PHP, Python, Ruby, Scheme
2001 AspectJ Xerox PARC Java
2001 Visual Basic .NET Microsoft Visual Basic
2002 Io Steve Dekorte Self, NewtonScript
2003 Nemerle Università di Breslavia C#, ML, MetaHaskell
2003 Factor Slava Pestov Joy, Forth, Lisp
2003 Scala Martin Odersky Smalltalk, Java, Haskell, Standard ML, OCaml
2003 Squirrel Alberto Demichelis Lua
2004 Subtext Jonathan Edwards
2004 Boo Rodrigo B. de Oliveira Python, C#
2004 Groovy James Strachan Java
2005 F# Don Syme al Microsoft Research Objective Caml, C#, Haskell
2005 Seed7 Thomas Mertes
2006 Links Philip Wadler, Università di Edinburgh Haskell
2006 Kite Mooneer Salem
2006 Windows PowerShell Microsoft C#, ksh, Perl, CL, DCL, SQL
2007 Fan Brian Frank, Andy Frank C#, Scala, Ruby, Erlang
2007 Vala GNOME C#
2007 Clojure Rich Hickey Lisp, ML, Haskell, Erlang
2007 Oberon-07 Wirth Oberon
2007 Ada 2005 Ada Rapporteur Group Ada 95
2008 Nimrod Andreas Rumpf Lisp, Python, C
2009 Go Google C, Oberon, Limbo

Note[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

  1. ^ UNIVAC conference, Charles Babbage Institute, Università di Minnesota
  2. ^ Interview with Guido van Rossum, giugno 1998. URL consultato il 28 2008.

Voci correlate[modifica | modifica wikitesto]

Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica wikitesto]