Albert O. Hirschman

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Albert Otto Hirschman (Berlino, 7 aprile 1915Ewing, 11 dicembre 2012) è stato un economista tedesco naturalizzato statunitense, autore di diversi libri di economia politica. Il suo maggiore contributo si deve nell'area dell'Economia dello sviluppo.[1] In questo campo ha sviluppato la teoria della crescita squilibrata (unbalanced growth). Poiché i paesi in via di sviluppo mancano di capacità decisionali, gli squilibri possono stimolarle e aiutare a smuovere risorse che necessitano di incoraggiamento. La chiave di questa azione fu stimolare le industrie che presentavano molte connessioni nel tessuto economico.

Il suo lavoro successivo fu in Economia politica, dove avanzò due semplici, ma potenti, schemi intellettuali. Il primo descrive le tre possibili risposte al declino: Exit, Voice, and Loyalty (titolo originale del libro "Lealtà, Defezione e Protesta"). Il secondo descrive gli argomenti di base dei conservatori: perversità, futilità e pericolo, in The Rhetoric of Reaction (titolo originale).

Biografia[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Hirschman nacque a Berlino, figlio di Carl e Hedwig Marcuse Hirschmann e fratello di Ursula Hirschmann (moglie di Eugenio Colorni e, dopo la vedovanza, di Altiero Spinelli)[2] Dopo aver iniziato i suoi studi nel 1932 alla Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, fu educato alla Sorbona, alla London School of Economics e all'Università di Trieste, dove nel 1938 ottenne il dottorato in Economia.[2]

Poco dopo, Hirschman fu volontario combattente per la repubblica spagnola nella Guerra civile spagnola. Dopo che la Francia si arrese ai nazisti, lavorò con Varian Fry per aiutare molti importanti artisti e intellettuali europei a scappare negli Stati Uniti; Hirschman li aiutava a fuggire dalla Francia occupata in Spagna attraverso percorsi nei Pirenei e quindi in Portogallo.

Vincitore di una Rockefeller Fellowship presso l'Università della California (1941–1943), fu soldato nell'esercito statunitense (1943–1946), fu nominato Capo della sezione Europa Occidentale e Commonwealth Britannico del Federal Reserve Board (1946–1952), fu consigliere finanziario del "National Planning Board" della Colombia (1952–1954) e successivamente divenne consulente economico privato a Bogotá (1954–1956).

In seguito ottenne varie cattedre di Economia alla Yale University (1956–1958), alla Columbia University (1958–1964), alla Harvard University (1964–1974) e all'Institute for Advanced Study a Princeton (1974- ).

Nel 2007, il Social Science Research Council istituì un premio annuale in onore di Hirschman.

Opere (in inglese)[modifica | modifica sorgente]

  • 1945. National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade 1980 expanded ed., Berkeley : University of California Press
  • 1955. Colombia; highlights of a developing economy. Bogotá: Banco de la Republica Press.
  • 1958. The Strategy of Economic Development. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-00559-8
  • 1961. Latin American issues; essays and comments New York: Twentieth Century Fund.
  • 1963. Journeys toward Progress: studies of economic policy-making in Latin America. New York: Twentieth Century Fund
  • 1967. Development Projects Observed. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution
  • 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-27660-4 (paper).
  • 1971. A bias for hope : essays on development and Latin America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • 1977. The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments For Capitalism Before Its Triumph. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01598-8.
  • 1980. National power and the structure of foreign trade. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • 1981. Essays in trespassing: economics to politics and beyond. Cambridge (Eng.); New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • 1982. Shifting involvements: private interest and public action. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • 1984. Getting ahead collectively: grassroots experiences in Latin America (with photographs by Mitchell Denburg). New York: Pergamon Press
  • 1985. A bias for hope: essays on development and Latin America. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • 1986. Rival views of market society and other recent essays. New York: Viking.
  • 1991. The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-76867-1 (cloth) and ISBN 0-674-76868-X (paper).
  • 1995. A propensity to self-subversion. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  • 1998. Crossing boundaries: selected writings. New York: Zone Books; Cambridge, Mass.: Distributed by the MIT Press.

Selezione di alcuni articoli di Hirschman (inglese)[modifica | modifica sorgente]

  • "On Measures of Dispersion for a Finite Distribution." Journal of the American Statistical Association 38, no. 223 (September 1943): 346-352.
  • "The Commodity Structure of World Trade." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 57, no. 4 (August 1943): 565-595.
  • "Devaluation and the Trade Balance: A Note." The Review of Economics and Statistics 31, no. 1 (February 1949): 50-53.
  • "Negotiations and the Issues." The Review of Economics and Statistics 33, no. 1 (February 1951): 49-55.
  • "Types of Convertibility." The Review of Economics and Statistics 33, no. 1 (February 1951): 60-62.
  • "Currency Appreciation as an Anti-Inflationary Device: Further Comment." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 66, no. 1 (February 1952): 117-120.
  • "Economic Policy in Underdeveloped Countries." Economic Development and Cultural Change 5, no. 4 (July 1957): 362-370.
  • "Investment Policies and 'Dualism' in Underdeveloped Countries." The American Economic Review 47, no. 5 (September 1957): 550-570.
  • "Invitation to Theorizing about the Dollar Glut." The Review of Economics and Statistics 42, no. 1 (February 1960): 100-102.
  • "The Commodity Structure of World Trade: Reply." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 75, no. 1 (February 1961): 165-166.
  • "Models of Reformmongering." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 77, no. 2 (May 1963): 236-257.
  • "Obstacles to Development: A Classification and a Quasi-Vanishing Act." Economic Development and Cultural Change 13, no. 4 (July 1965): 385-393.
  • "The Political Economy of Import-Substituting Industrialization in Latin America." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 82, no. 1 (February 1968): 1-32.
  • "Underdevelopment, Obstacles to the Perception of Change, and Leadership." Daedalus 97, no. 3 (Summer 1968): 925-937.
  • "An Alternative Explanation of Contemporary Harriednes." The Quarterly Journal of Economics 87, no. 4 (November 1973): 634-637.
  • "Beyond Asymmetry: Critical Notes on Myself as a Young Man and on Some Other Old Friends." International Organization 32, no. 1 (Winter 1978): 45-50.
  • "Exit, Voice, and the State." World Politics 31, no. 1 (October 1978): 90-107.
  • "'Exit, Voice, and Loyalty': Further Reflections and a Survey of Recent Contributions." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society 58, no. 3 (Summer 1980): 430-453.
  • "Rival Interpretations of Market Society: Civilizing, Destructive, or Feeble?." Journal of Economic Literature 20, no. 4 (December 1982): 1463-1484.
  • "Against Parsimony: Three Easy Ways of Complicating Some Categories of Economic Discourse." Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 37, no. 8 (May 1984): 11-28.
  • "Against Parsimony: Three Easy Ways of Complicating Some Categories of Economic Discourse." American Economic Review 72, no. 2 (1984): 89-96
  • "University Activities Abroad and Human Rights Violations: Exit, Voice, or Business as Usual." Human Rights Quarterly 6, no. 1 (February 1984): 21-26.
  • "The Political Economy of Latin American Development: Seven Exercises in Retrospection." Latin American Research Review 22, no. 3 (1987): 7-36.
  • "Exit, Voice, and the Fate of the German Democratic Republic: An Essay in Conceptual History." World Politics 45, no. 2 (January 1993): 173-202.
  • "Social Conflicts as Pillars of Democratic Market Society." Political Theory 22, no. 2 (May 1994): 203-218.

Articoli fondamentali (Inglese)[modifica | modifica sorgente]

  • Shu-Yun Ma. "The Exit, Voice, and Struggle to Return of Chinese Political Exiles," Pacific Affairs. Vol. 66, No. 3. (Autumn 1993) pp. 368–385.
  • Michael Laver. "Exit, Voice, and Loyalty revisited: The Strategic Production and Consumption of Public and Private Goods," British Journal of Political Science. Vol. 6. (Oct. 1976). pp. 463–482.

Collegamenti esterni[modifica | modifica sorgente]

Note[modifica | modifica sorgente]

  1. ^ Hirschman, A. O. (1958) The Strategy of Economic Development. Yale University Press
  2. ^ a b (DE) Honorary degree awarded to Albert O. Hirschman by Free University of Berlin

Controllo di autorità VIAF: 108170383 LCCN: n/79/43383